Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of our present knowledge about the feline tecto-thalamo-basal ganglia cortical sensory pathway. We reviewed morphological and electrophysiological studies of the cortical areas, located in ventral bank of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus as well as the region of the insular cortex, the suprageniculate nucleus of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, and the substantia nigra. Microelectrode studies revealed common receptive field properties in all these structures. The receptive fields were extremely large and multisensory, with pronounced sensitivity to motion of visual stimuli. They often demonstrated directional and velocity selectivity. Preference for small visual stimuli was also a frequent finding. However, orientation sensitivity was absent. It became obvious that the structures of the investigated sensory loop exhibit a unique kind of information processing, not found anywhere else in the feline visual system.
Keywords: basal ganglia, anterior ectosylvian visual area, insular cortex, suprageniculate nucleus, caudate nucleus, substantia nigra
Abstract: Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the effects of physical exercise on parahippocampal function. Methods: Studies were identified using electronic databases, including PubMed, PsychInfo, Sports Discus, and Google Scholar. In total, 28 articles met the inclusionary criteria. Among these, 20 were among humans and 8 in animal models. Among the 20 human studies that examined some aspects of the parahippocampal gyrus, 5 evaluated the entorhinal cortex and 1 evaluated the perirhinal cortex. Among the 20 human studies, 3 evaluated neural activity (or BOLD-signal changes), 14 evaluated brain volume (gray or white matter), 2 examined fractional anisotropy, 1 examined glucose metabolism, and 1 examined functional connectivity between the parahippocampal gyrus and a proximal brain tissue. Among the 8 animal studies, 4 evaluated the entorhinal cortex, with the other 4 examining the perirhinal cortex. Results: The results demonstrated that, among both animal and human models, exercise had widespread effects on parahippocampal function. These effects, included, for example, increased neural excitability in the parahippocampal gyrus, increased gray/white matter, reduced volume of lesions, enhanced regional glucose metabolism, increased cerebral blood flow, augmented markers of synaptic plasticity, and increased functional connectivity with other proximal brain structures. Conclusion: Exercise appears to have extensive effects on parahippocampal function.
Keywords: BDNF, cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise, gray matter, memory, physical activity, sedentary behavior, synaptic plasticity, white matter
Abstract: Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the possible role of heat shock protein-70 (HSP70) induction by 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) in collagen-induced arthritis in rats. Material and methods: MaleWistar rats were divided into five groups (n = 10/group) and were treated intraperitoneally twice a week for 4 weeks, namely normal control (saline), arthritis control (AR; saline), AR + 17-AAG, AR + methotrexate (MTX), and AR + 17-AAG + MTX. At the end of the treatments, arthritic score was determined and then the animals were sacrificed. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), serum levels of HSP70, interleukin-17 (IL-17), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), rheumatic factor (RF), C-reactive protein (CRP), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined. Results: In the AR group, all parameters increased significantly, except for GPx, which showed a pronounced decrease. The 17-AAG and/or MTX treatments significantly reduced arthritic score, ESR, IL-17, TNF-α, RF, CRP, MDA, and MMP-9 with significant increase in GPx compared to the AR group. The HSP70 level was significantly higher in the AR + 17-AAG and the AR + 17-AAG +MTX groups but significantly lower in the AR + MTX group as compared to the AR group. Also, it was significantly lower in the AR +MTX group as compared to the AR + 17-AAG group. Conclusion: We concluded that HSP70 induction by 17-AAG attenuated the inflammatory process in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model induced by collagen, which suggested that HSP70 inducers can be promising agents in the treatment of RA.
Keywords: heat shock protein-70, 17-AAG, collagen-induced arthritis, interleukin-17, methotrexate
Abstract: Introduction: The quality and function of movements undergo deterioration due to weight gain. Aerobic training normalizes body weight, improves the health status, and in addition, it is expected to improve the dynamics of movements. The aims of this study were to prove the beneficial effects of recreational physical activities on the movements. Methods: Participants were divided into five different age categories: second childhood, adolescence, mature age I, mature age II, and aging. Squatting and vertical jumping of the participants were measured at the beginning and at the end of a 5-month training program. These movements simulated ordinary daily movements. Changes in the body were determined by InBody230. APAS 3D system was used for movement analysis. Results: The results showed significant improvements in body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, fat mass–body weight ratio, muscle mass–body weight ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist–hip ratio. During jumping, the lifting and sinking of the center of gravity’s (CG) position and its velocity and acceleration were improved. In case of squatting, the results showed significant improvements in the velocity and acceleration of dynamical characteristics of the CG. Other correlations were observed between changes in body composition and the dynamics of movements. Discussion: The research proved that recreational training optimized body composition and improved the characteristics of CG’s dynamics. The study suggests considerable connection between body composition and the characteristics of the movements’ dynamics. From this point of view, our training program was the most effective in the working age groups.
Keywords: center of gravity, recreational physical activities, body composition, movement analysis, vertical jumping, squatting
Abstract: The medial olivocochlear efferent (MOCE) branch synapses with outer hair cells (OHCs), and the efferent pathway can be activated via a contralateral acoustic stimulus (CAS). The activation of MOCE can change OHC motile responses and convert signals that are capable of controlling the sensitivity of the peripheral hearing system in a frequency-specific manner. The aim of this study was to examine the MOCE system activity in professional musicians using transient evoked otoacoustic emission test and CAS. Musician group showed stronger suppression in all frequency bands in the presence of CAS.
Keywords: contralateral acoustic stimulus, broadband noise, medial olivocochlear efferent system, otoacoustic emission, cochlear micromechanics
Abstract: Obesity is related to increased oxidative stress. Although low-intensity physical exercise reduces oxidative stress, obese subjects may show exercise intolerance. For these subjects, inspiratory threshold loading could be an alternative tool to reduce oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of inspiratory threshold loading on biomarkers of oxidative stress in obese and normal-weight subjects. Twenty obese (31.4 ± 6 years old, 10 men and 10 women, 37.5 ± 4.7 kg/m2) and 20 normal-weight (29.4 ± 8 years old, 10 men and 10 women, 23.2 ± 1.5 kg/m2) subjects matched for age and gender participated in the study. Maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) was assessed by a pressure transducer. Blood sampling was performed before and after loading and control protocols to assess thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonylation, and reduced glutathione. Inspiratory threshold loading was performed at 60% MIP and maintained until task failure. The 30-min control protocol was performed at 0 cmH2O. Our results demonstrated that inspiratory threshold loading reduced TBARS across time in obese (6.21 ± 2.03 to 4.91 ± 2.14 nmol MDA/ml) and normal-weight subjects (5.60 ± 3.58 to 4.69 ± 2.80 nmol MDA/ml; p = 0.007), but no change was observed in protein carbonyls and glutathione in both groups. The control protocol showed no significant changes in TBARS and protein carbonyls. However, reduced glutathione was increased across time in both groups (obese: from 0.50 ± 0.37 to 0.56 ± 0.35 μmol GSH/ml; normal-weight: from 0.61 ± 0.11 to 0.81 ± 0.23 μmol GSH/ml; p = 0.002). These findings suggest that inspiratory threshold loading could be potentially used as an alternative tool to reduce oxidative stress in both normal-weight and obese individuals.
Keywords: oxidative stress, obesity, inspiratory exercise, inspiratory muscle strength, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances
Abstract: In this study, we tested the hypothesis that, during the regular in-seasonal basketball training, an additional 7-week plyometric training program improves lower extremity strength, balance, agility, and jump performance in adolescent female basketball players. Eighteen female basketball players less than 17 years of age were randomly assigned into an experimental group (plyometric training) and a control group. Both groups underwent the same basketball training program. Pre- and post-training test periods included quadriceps and hamstring strength, balance, jump performance, and agility measurements. Illinois agility test time (p = 0.000) and quadriceps strength (p = 0.035) increased uniformly in the two groups. Significant group by test period interaction was found for countermovement jump (p = 0.007), and countermovement height reduced significantly in the plyometric training group (p = 0.012), while it remained unchanged in controls. No significant change was found for T agility test, balance, hamstring strength or H:Q ratio. This study shows that the training program used in-season did not improve the measured variables, except for knee extensor strength. It is possible that regular basketball trainings and games combined with high-volume plyometric training did not show positive functional effects because of the fatigue caused by incomplete recovery between sessions.
Keywords: 7-week program, high intensity, adolescent females, team sport, female athletes
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute muscular response with resistance exercise between the following conditions [labeled (% one-repetition maximum/% arterial occlusion pressure)]: high-load (70/0), very low-load (15/0), very low-load with moderate (15/40), and high (15/80) blood flow restriction pressures. Twenty-three participants completed four sets of unilateral knee extension to failure (up to 90 repetitions) with each condition, one condition per leg, each day. Muscle thickness and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured before (Pre), immediately after (Post-0), and 15 min after (Post-15) exercise and electromyography (EMG) amplitude during exercise. Pre to Post-0 muscle thickness changes in cm [95% CI] were greater with 15/40 [0.57 (0.41, 0.73)] and 15/80 [0.49 (0.35, 0.62)] compared to 70/0 [0.33 (0.25, 0.40)]. Pre to Post-0 MVC changes in Nm [95% CI] were higher with 15/40 [−127.0 (−162.1, −91.9)] and 15/80 [−133.6 (−162.8, −104.4)] compared to 70/0 [−48.4 (−70.1, −26.6)] and 15/0 [−98.4 (−121.9, −74.9)], which were also different. Over the first three repetitions, EMG increased across sets, whereas in the last three repetitions it did not. EMG was also different between conditions and was generally greater during 70/0. Repetitions decreased across sets reaching the lowest for 70/0, and for very low loads decreased with increased pressure. In trained participants exercising to failure, lower load and the application of restriction pressure augment changes in muscle thickness and torque. The EMG amplitude was augmented by load. Training studies should compare these conditions, as the results herein suggest some muscular adaptations may differ.
Keywords: occlusion, electromyography, muscle thickness, fatigue, voluntary contraction