Abstract: Emerging research demonstrates that exercise is favorably associated with several cognitive outcomes, including episodic memory function. The majority of the mechanistic work describing the underlying mechanisms of this effect has focused on chronic exercise engagement. Such mechanisms include, e.g., chronic exercise-induced neurogenesis, gliogenesis, angiogenesis, cerebral circulation, and growth factor production. Less research has examined the mechanisms through which acute (vs. chronic) exercise subserves episodic memory function. The purpose of this review is to discuss these potential underlying mechanisms, which include, e.g., acute exercise-induced (via several pathways, such as vagus nerve and muscle spindle stimulation) alterations in neurotransmitters, synaptic tagging/ capturing, associativity, and psychological attention.
Keywords: cognition, exercise, pathways, hippocampus, memory
Abstract: Aging remains the most pervasive risk factor for a wide range of chronic diseases that afflict modern societies. In the United States alone, incidence of age-related diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, vascular cognitive impairment and dementia, cancer, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and osteoarthritis) is on the rise, posing an unsustainable socioeconomic burden even for the most developed countries. Tackling each and every age-related disease alone is proving to be costly and ineffective. The emerging field of geroscience has posed itself as an interdisciplinary approach that aims to understand the relationship between the biology of aging and the pathophysiology of chronic age-related diseases. According to the geroscience concept, aging is the single major risk factor that underlies several age-related chronic diseases, and manipulation of cellular and systemic aging processes can delay the manifestation and/or severity of these age-related chronic pathologies. The goal of this endeavor is to achieve health improvements by preventing/delaying the pathogenesis of several agerelated diseases simultaneously in the elderly population by targeting key cellular and molecular processes of aging instead of managing diseases of aging as they arise individually. In this review, we discuss recent advances in the field of geroscience, highlighting their implications for potential future therapeutic targets and the associated scientific challenges and opportunities that lay ahead.
Keywords: geroscience, mechanisms of aging, senolytic, senescence, inflamm-aging
Abstract: The duration and intensity of exercise are significant factors in oxidative, morphological, and functional changes of the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to investigate the effects of both exhaustive swimming and probiotic VSL#3 on rats that had been previously trained with moderate swimming. The rats were divided into four groups labeled: control (C), probiotic (P), exercise (E), and probiotic–exercise (PE). Groups P and PE were fed with probiotic mixture VSL#3. Groups E and PE had a 5-week moderate swimming program (1 h/day for 5 days/week), followed by a 1-week exhaustive swimming program (trained like in moderate program but 3 times with 150 min resting sessions, for 5 days/week). At the end of the program, the rats were euthanized. Malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and reduced glutathione levels were measured in tissue samples from the gastrocnemius muscle, heart, liver, kidney, and colon. In vitro contractile activity and histomorphology of the colon were also determined. Exercise and/or probiotic decreased the oxidative stress and also increased the level of one or more of the antioxidant enzymes in some of the organs. Probiotics had more pronounced effects on colon morphology than exercise but unexpectedly this effect was non-trophic. In the colon, the thickness of the tunica muscularis and the number of goblet cells were not affected; however, probiotic administration decreased the crypt depth and tunica mucosa thickness. Exercise increased the Emax value of acetylcholine (ACh), while decreased its sensitivity. These findings suggest that exhaustive swimming does not cause oxidative stress and that probiotic consumption improves oxidative balance in trained rats. The probiotic intake does not alter the effect of exercise on the contractile activity of the colon. Colon mucosal changes induced by probiotics are independent of exercise.
Keywords: oxidative stress, swimming exercise, probiotic, colon morphology, colon contractility
Abstract: Purpose: Gastritis is found to be one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases worldwide. However, current therapeutic agents cause side effects, interaction, and recurrence. Allantoin has anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. In this study, the therapeutic effect of allantoin has been assessed on the histopathological indices and gastric mucosal barrier of male rats. Methods: Male rats were equally divided into control, ethanol-induced gastritis, and allantoin groups. The therapeutic groups consisted of gastritis plus 12.5 mg/kg allantoin, gastritis plus 25 mg/kg allantoin, and gastritis plus 50 mg/kg allantoin groups. After 5 days of allantoin administration, the rats were sacrificed and a part of their gastric tissue was maintained at −70 °C for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) measurements. Another part was stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome. Results: We found that Allantoin increased parietal and mucosal cell counts and mucosal thickness after gastritis induction. In addition, the number of leukocytes and vessels decreased in both of the mucosal and the submucosal layers. Allatoin improved gastric ulcer in all treatment groups. Gastric levels of PGE2 and NP-SH increased after allantoin treatment. Conclusion: This study indicated that allantoin had a considerable effect on gastritis treatment, which seems to result from the reinforcement of gastric mucosal barrier.
Keywords: allantoin, gastritis, ethanol, prostaglandin E2, stomach
Abstract: Background and aims: The aim of this study was to develop an integrated central blood pressure–aortic stiffness (ICPS) risk score to predict cardiovascular events. Methods: It was a retrospective cohort study. A total of 100 chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients on conservative therapy were included. Pulse wave velocity (PWV), central systolic blood pressure (cSBP), and central pulse pressure (cPP) were measured. A score was assigned to tertiles of PWV (0–2), cPP (0–2), and cSBP (0 to the first and second and 1 to the third tertile) based on each parameter’s ability to individually predict cardiovascular outcome. The sum of these scores and three ICPS risk categories as predictors were studied. Finally, we compared discrimination of the ICPS risk categories with PWV, cSBP, and cPP. Results: Adjusted for age and sex, patients in high and very high ICPS risk categories had increased cardiovascular risk (HR: 3.52, 95% CI: 1.65–7.49; HR: 7.56, 95% CI: 3.20–17.85, respectively). High and very high ICPS risk categories remained independent predictors in a model adjusted for multiple CV risk factors (HR: 4.58, 95% CI: 1.65–7.49; HR: 8.56, 95% CI: 3.09–23.76, respectively). ICPS risk categories (Harrell’s C: 0.723, 95% CI: 0.652–0.795) showed better discrimination than PWV (Harrell’s C: 0.659, 95% CI: 0.586–0.732, p = 0.028) and cSBP (Harrell’s C: 0.660, 95% CI: 0.584–0.735, p = 0.008) and there has been a tendency of significance in case of cPP (Harrell’s C: 0.691, 95% CI: 0.621–0.761, p = 0.170). Conclusion: The ICPS score may clinically importantly improve the identification of CKD patients with elevated cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease, central blood pressure, central pulse pressure, pulse wave velocity, cardiovascular outcome
Abstract: The aim of this study is to summarize the beneficial effects of the holistic approach to patients living with chronic renal failure, including multidisciplinary education and psychosocial care. By education, we enable our patients to reach self-management, appropriate compliance, and coping, which may decrease progression of renal failure, avoid urgent need for starting dialysis and may facilitate better modality selection, access planning, renal transplantation activity, and rehabilitation. Psychosocial care reduces anxiety and fear, modifies perception of illness’ burden, and increases quality of life. Yet, both patients and nephrologists feel that transmission of information is often insufficient. Different methods can effectively be utilized as educational interventions, meetings with staff, and also with expert patients, group education sessions, written or online materials, or multimedia presentations. Patient care of such a high complexity can be provided only by multidisciplinary teams. A special Hungarian example of holistic care is presented, and the favorable results of the education and lifestyle camps for patients accompanied by their relatives are discussed. Accordingly, complex care of patients living with chronic renal failure on the long run is cost saving.
Keywords: multidisciplinary education, holistic care, psychosocial care, chronic renal failure, quality of life
Abstract: Objectives: Fatigue is a limiting factor for sport performance. For this reason, optimal recovery after training is just as critical as the training program itself, if not more. Indeed, there is a need for strategies that can facilitate recovery after training, and one such strategy is the ingestion of supplements like melatonin (MEL). This study aimed to evaluate if MEL intake could improve recovery of athletes after an intermittent training session (ITS). Methods: Fifteen elite female athletes (17.4 ± 0.4 years, 76.4 ± 5.6 kg, 1.76 ± 0.04m; mean ± standard deviation) participated in two testing campaigns. During each period, they performed a battery of physical and cognitive tests before and after an ITS, as well as after ingesting MEL (6mg tablet) or placebo in a randomized design. The ITS comprised the modified agility T-test, squat jump, counter movement jump, maximum standing ball-throw velocity test, maximum jump ball-throw velocity test, and 20-m sprint. Oral temperature (OT) and vigilance were evaluated before and after the ITS. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE), blood lactate [La], and glucose [Gl] were recorded after each ITS. Results: Short-term performance, recovery of physical performance, and OT were not affected byMEL ingestion after the ITS. Moreover, MEL did not affect cognitive performance or RPE scores after the ITS. However, [La] and [Gl] (p < 0.05 for both) were decreased after MEL ingestion. Conclusion: MEL has no effect on the recovery of physical performance but may affect glucose utilization and lactate metabolism during the team-handball training session.
Keywords: melatonin, recovery, physical performance, lactate, training
Abstract: The benefit of body weight resistance exercise with slow movement (BWRE-slow) for muscle function is welldocumented, but not for energy metabolism. We aimed to examine physiological responses [e.g., energy expenditure (EE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and blood lactate (La)] during and afterBWRE-slow compared to EE-matched treadmill walking (TW). Eight healthy young men (23.4 ± 1.8 years old, 171.2 ± 6.2 cm, 63.0 ± 4.8 kg) performed squat, push-up, lunge, heel-raise, hip-lift, and crunch exercises with BWRE-slow modality. Both the concentric and eccentric phases were set to 3 s. A total of three sets (10 repetitions) with 30 s rest between sets were performed for each exercise (26.5 min). On another day, subjects walked on a treadmill for 26.5 min during which EE during exercise was matched to that of BWRE-slow with the researcher controlling the treadmill speed manually. The time course changes of EE and RER were measured. The EE during exercise for BWRE-slow (92.6 ± 16.0 kcal for 26.5 min) was not significantly different from the EE during exercise for TW (95.5 ± 14.1 kcal, p = 0.36). BWRE-slow elicited greater recovery EE (40.55 ± 3.88 kcal for 30 min) than TW (37.61 ± 3.19 kcal, p = 0.029). RER was significantly higher in BWRE-slow during and 0–5 min after exercise, but became significantly lower during 25–30 min after exercise, suggesting greater lipid oxidation was induced about 30 min after exercise in BWRE-slow compared to TW. We also indicated that BWRE-slow has 3.1 metabolic equivalents in average, which is categorized as moderate-intensity physical activity.
Keywords: energy metabolism, FAT oxidation, CHO oxidation, respiratory exchange ratio, respiratory quotient
Abstract: Purpose: The purpose of this study is to establish the alterations in the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) via heart rate variability (HRV) in subjects exposed to 1 h of exogenous hypoxia for 10 consecutive days. Methods: Twelve healthy non-smoker males at mean age of 29.8 ± 7.4 (mean ± SD) breathed hypoxic air delivered through hypoxicator (FiО2 = 12.3% ± 1.5%) for 1 h in 10 consecutive days. Pulse oximetry and electrocardiography were monitored during the visit and HRV was calculated for the entire 1-h hypoxic period. Results: Comparing the last hypoxic visit to the first, subjects had higher standard deviation of normal-to-normal interbeat intervals (SDNNs) (65.7 ± 32.5 vs. 81.1 ± 32.0 ms, p = 0.013) and root mean square of successive R–R interval difference (RMSSD) (58.1 ± 30.9 vs. 76.5 ± 34.6 ms, p = 0.029) as well as higher lnTotal power (8.1 ± 1.1 vs. 8.5 ± 0.9 ms2, p = 0.015) and high frequency (lnHF) (6.8 ± 1.3 vs. 7.5 ± 1.2 ms2, p = 0.05) and lower LF/HF (2.4 ± 1.4 vs. 1.5 ± 1.0, p = 0.026). Changes in saturation (87.0 ± 7.1 vs. 90.8 ± 5.0%, p = 0.039) and heart rate (67.1 ± 8.9 vs. 62.5 ± 6.0 beats/min, p = 0.040) were also observed. Conclusions: Intermittent hypoxic training consisting of 1-h hypoxic exposure for 10 consecutive days could diminish the effects of acute exogenous hypoxia on the ANS characterized by an increased autonomic control (SDNN and total power) with augmentation of the parasympathetic nervous system activity (increased RMSSD and HF and decreased LF/HF). Therefore, it could be applied as a pre-acclimatization technique aiming at an increase in the autonomic control and oxygen saturation in subjects with upcoming sojourn to high altitude.
Keywords: altitude, hypoxia, autonomic nervous system, heart rate variability, intermittent hypoxic training, acclimatization