Abstract: Lipid-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K) are actually hormones (exohormones), as they can be directly bound by hormone receptors or are in connection with molecules, which influence hormone receptors. Vitamin D is a transition between endo- and exohormones and the possibility of similar situation in case of other lipid-soluble hormones is discussed. The perinatal exposition with these “vitamins” can cause faulty perinatal hormonal imprinting with similar consequences as the faulty imprinting by the synthetic endohormones, members of the same hormone family or industrial, communal, or medical endocrine disruptors. The faulty imprinting leads to late (lifelong) consequences with altered hormone binding by receptors, altered sexuality, brain function, immunity, bone development, and fractures, etc. In addition, as hormonal imprinting is an epigenetic process, the effect of a single exposure by fat-soluble vitamins is inherited to the progeny generations. As vitamins are handled differently from hormones; however, perinatal treatments take place frequently and sometimes it is forced, the negative late effect of faulty perinatal vitamin-caused hormonal imprinting must be considered.
Keywords: lipid-soluble vitamins, vitamin D, vitamin A, hormonal imprinting, faulty imprinting, perinatal exposures, epigenetic inheritance
Abstract: Statins have cholesterol-independent effects including an increased vascular nitric oxide activity and are commonly used by patients with cardiovascular disease. Such patients frequently have cardiovascular diseases, which may be treated with cilostazol, a platelet aggregation inhibitor. This study was designed to investigate whether combined use of cilostazol would increase the inhibitory effect of statin on vascular smooth muscle and how maturation would affect these responses. Female Wistar rats, aged 3–4 months (young) and 14–15 months (adult), were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and the thoracic aorta was dissected and cut into 3- to 4-mm-long rings. The rings were mounted under a resting tension of 1 g in a 20-ml organ bath filled with Krebs–Henseleit solution. Rings were precontracted with phenylephrine (10−6 M), and the presence of endothelium was confirmed with acetylcholine (10−6 M). Then, the concentration–response curves were obtained for atorvastatin alone (10−10 to 3 × 10−4 M; control) and in the presence of cilostazol (10−6 M) in young and adult rat aortas. This experimental protocol was also carried out in aorta rings, which had been pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 10−4 M). Atorvastatin induced concentration-dependent relaxations in young and adult rat thoracic aorta rings precontracted with phenylephrine. The pIC50 value of atorvastatin was significantly decreased in adult rat aortas. In addition, pretreatment of aortas with cilostazol enhanced the potency of atorvastatin in both young and adult aortas. Incubation with L-NAME did not completely eliminate the relaxations to atorvastatin in the presence of cilostazol. These results suggest that combined application of cilostazol with atorvastatin was significantly more potent than atorvastatin alone. Combined drug therapy may be efficacious in delaying the occurrence of cardiovascular events.
Keywords: age, atorvastatin, cilostazol, rat aorta, nitric oxide, relaxation
Abstract: Body sensations play an essential role in the subjective evaluation of our physical health, illness, and healing. They are impacted by peripheral somatic and external processes, but they are also heavily modulated by mental processes, e.g., attention, motor control, and emotion. Body sensations, such as tingling, numbness, pulse, and warmth, can emerge due to simply focusing attention on a body part. It is however an open question, if these sensations are connected with actual peripheral changes or happen “only in the mind.” Here, we first tested whether the intensity of such attention-related body sensations is related to autonomic and somatomotor physiological processes and to psychological traits. In this study, attention-related body sensations were not significantly connected to changes in physiology, except warmth sensation, which was linked to decrease in muscle tension. Overall intensity of tingling significantly correlated with body awareness and tendentiously with body–mind practice. This strengthened the hypothesis that attention-related body sensations are more the result of top–down functions, and the connection with peripheral processes is weak. Here, we suggested a novel protocol to examine the effect of manipulating attention on body sensations, which together with our results and discussion can inspire future researches.
Keywords: psychophysiology, body attention, body awareness, tingling, body sensation
Abstract: The application of blood flow restriction during low-load resistance exercise has been shown to induce muscle growth with high or low restriction pressures, however, loads lower than 20% one-repetition maximum (1RM) remain unexplored. Fourteen trained individuals completed six elbow flexion protocols involving three different loads (10%, 15%, and 20% 1RM) each of which was performed with either a low (40% arterial occlusion) or high (80% arterial occlusion) pressure. Pre- and post-measurements of surface electromyography (sEMG), isometric torque, and muscle thickness were analyzed. An interaction was present for torque (p < 0.001) and muscle thickness (p < 0.001) illustrating that all increases in pressure and/or load resulted in a greater fatigue and muscle thickness. There was no interaction for sEMG (p = 0.832); however, there were main effects of condition (p = 0.002) and time (p = 0.019) illustrating greater sEMG in the 20% 1RM conditions. Higher blood flow restriction pressures may be more beneficial for muscle growth when very low loads are used.
Keywords: electromyography, elbow flexion, occlusion training, resistance training, strength training, hypertrophy, swelling
Abstract: Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters. Methods: Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line. Results: Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender. Conclusion: There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.
Keywords: gait, locomotion, movement screens, motion analysis, feedback methods