Abstract: Obesity has become a worldwide epidemic, and its prevalence has been projected to grow by 40% in the next decade. This increasing prevalence has implications for the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and also for chronic kidney disease (CKD). A high body mass index is one of the strongest risk factors for new-onset CKD. In individuals affected by obesity, a compensatory hyperfiltration occurs to meet the heightened metabolic demands of the increased body weight. The increase in intraglomerular pressure can damage the kidneys and raise the risk of developing CKD in the long-term. The incidence of obesity-related glomerulopathy has increased tenfold in recent years. Obesity has also been shown to be a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, and for a number of malignancies including kidney cancer. This year the World Kidney Day promotes education on the harmful consequences of obesity and its association with kidney disease, advocating healthy lifestyle, and health policy measures that makes preventive behaviors an affordable option.
Keywords: obesity, chronic kidney disease, nephrolithiasis, kidney cancer, prevention
Abstract: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa seeds and certain species of fungi extracts on the number and degranulation states of dural mast cells in rats. Rats were fed ad libitum with normal tap water or tap water with extract of N. sativa seed, Ramaria condensata, Lactarius salmonicolor, Lactarius piperatus, and Tricholoma terreum for 3 days. Mast cells in dura mater were counted and evaluated in terms of granulation and degranulation states. Compound 48/80, a mast cell degranulating agent, and T. terreum significantly increased the percent of degranulated mast cells in dura mater, respectively (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05). Moreover, T. terreum causes a significant increase in the total number of mast cells (p < 0.05). N. sativa significantly inhibited mast cell degranulation induced by both the compound 48/80 and T. terreum (p < 0.05), and significantly decreased the mast cell numbers increased by T. terreum (p < 0.05). Our results suggested that T. terreum following ingestion can contribute to headaches like migraine via dural mast cell degranulation and N. sativa may be able to exert analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects by stabilizing dural mast cells. However, investigation is needed to determine the ingredients of N. sativa that may be responsible for these beneficial effects.
Keywords: migraine, neurogenic inflammation, dura mater, mast cell, Nigella sativa, Tricholoma terreum
Abstract: Introduction: Testosterone plays an important role in the blood pressure regulation. However, information with regard to the effect of this hormone on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive conditions is limited. Therefore, in this study, the relationship between plasma testosterone level and mean arterial pressure (MAP) was investigated under these conditions. Methods: Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive Spontaneous Hypertensive (SHR) male and female rats were gonadectomized with female rats treated with testosterone. Estrous cycle stages of intact female rats of both strains were identified by vaginal smear. Pressure in the carotid artery of anesthetized rats was measured via direct cannulation technique. The blood was withdrawn for plasma testosterone level measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Treatment of ovariectomized female WKY and SHR rats with testosterone for 6-week duration has resulted in MAP to increase (P < 0.05). In male WKY and SHR rats, MAP and plasma testosterone levels decreased by orchidectomy (P < 0.05). No significant differences in MAP and plasma testosterone levels were observed in intact female WKY and SHR rats between stages of the estrous cycle. Conclusions: The effects seen in testosterone-treated ovariectomized female rats and in orchidectomized male rats suggested that testosterone could play an important role in causing the blood pressure to increase.
Keywords: testosterone, gonadectomy, blood pressure, rats, WKY, SHR
Abstract: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic inflammatory autoimmune disorder. Thrombotic events occur at a higher incidence among SLE patients. The investigation of thrombin generation (TG) with calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT) test as a global hemostasis assay is applicable for the overall functional assessment of the hemostasis. The aim of this study was to characterize the hemostatic alterations observed in SLE by CAT assay. In this study, CAT parameters and basic coagulation parameters of SLE patients (n = 22) and healthy control subjects (n = 34) were compared. CAT area under the curve (i.e., endogenous thrombin potential) was lower than normal in SLE (807 vs. 1,159 nM*min, respectively), whereas other CAT parameters (peak, lag time, time to peak, and velocity index) and the basic coagulation tests were within the normal range. The presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies and the applied therapy was not associated with hemostasis parameters in SLE. We concluded that the reported high risk of thrombosis is not related to TG potential.
Keywords: thrombin generation, systemic lupus erythematosus, thrombosis, endogenous thrombin potential, anti-phospholipid antibodies
Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the early electrocardiogram (ECG) changes induced by physical training in preadolescent elite footballers. This study included 94 preadolescent highly trained male footballers (FG) competing in Serbian Football League (minimum of 7 training hours/week) and 47 age-matched healthy male controls (less than 2 training hours/week) (CG). They were screened by ECG and echocardiography at a tertiary referral cardio center. Sokolow–Lyon index was used as a voltage electrocardiographic criterion for left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosis. Characteristic ECG intervals and voltage were compared and reference range was given for preadolescent footballers. Highly significant differences between FG and CG were registered in all ECG parameters: P-wave voltage (p < 0.001), S-wave (V1 or V2 lead) voltage (p < 0.001), R-wave (V5 and V6 lead) voltage (p < 0.001), ECG sum of S V1–2 +R V5–6 (p < 0.001), T-wave voltage (p < 0.001), QRS complex duration (p < 0.001), T-wave duration (p < 0.001), QTc interval duration (p < 0.001), and R/T ratio (p < 0.001). No differences were found in PQ interval duration between these two groups (p > 0.05). During 6-year follow-up period, there was no adverse cardiac event in these footballers. None of them expressed pathological ECG changes. Benign ECG changes are presented in the early stage of athlete’s heart remodeling, but they are not related to pathological ECG changes and they should be regarded as ECG pattern of LV remodeling.
Keywords: athletes, cardiology, electrocardiography, heart, footballers
Abstract: Objective: Hepcidin may be an important mediator in exercise-induced iron deficiency. Despite the studies investigating acute exercise effects on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism, we found no studies examining the chronic effects of walking exercises (WE) on hepcidin and markers of iron metabolism in premenopausal women. The chronic effects of two 8-week different-intensity WE on hepcidin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and markers of iron metabolism in pre-menopausal women were examined. Methods: Exercise groups (EG) [moderate tempo walking group (MTWG), n = 11; brisk walking group (BWG), n = 11] walked 3 days/week, starting from 30 to 51 min. Control group (CG; n = 8) did not perform any exercises. BWG walked at ∼70%–75%; MTWG at ∼50%–55% of HRRmax. VO2max, hepcidin, IL-6, and iron metabolism markers were determined before and after the intervention. Results: VO2max increased in both EGs, favoring the BWG. Hepcidin increased in the BWG (p < 0.01) and CG (p < 0.05). IL-6 decreased in the BWG and the MTWG (p < 0.05; p < 0.01). While iron, ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation levels did not change in any group, total iron binding capacity (p < 0.05), red blood cells (p < 0.05), and hematocrit (p < 0.01) increased only in the BWG. Conclusion: Both WE types may be useful to prevent inflammation. However, brisk walking is advisable due to the positive changes in VO2max and some iron metabolism parameters, which may contribute to prevent iron deficiency. The increase in hepcidin levels remains unclear and necessitates further studies.
Keywords: hepcidin, IL-6, iron metabolism, pre-menopausal women, walking
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine acute physiological and perceptual responses to two commonly implemented blood flow restriction protocols. Using a within-subject design, 15 participants (age ∼25) performed four sets of unilateral elbow flexion with each arm. One arm exercised using a 3-cm elastic cuff inflated to 160 mmHg, whereas the other arm exercised using a 5-cm nylon cuff inflated to 40% of the individual’s arterial occlusion pressure. While both protocols elicited increases in acute muscle thickness [pre: 4.5 (0.2) cm, post: 5.0 (0.2) cm; p < 0.001] and electromyography amplitude [first 3 reps: 55 (5) %MVC; last 3 reps: 87 (10) %MVC], there were no differences between conditions. Both protocols produced decreases in post-exercise strength (pre: 70 Nm, post: 51 Nm; p < 0.001) with no difference between conditions. The nylon protocol resulted in more repetitions during sets 2 [13 (2) vs. 9 (4); p = 0.001] and 3 [10 (2) vs. 7 (4); p = 0.05], while producing lower levels of discomfort following each set (average 3 vs. 4; p < 0.05). In conclusion, both protocols produced similar acute responses thought to be important for promoting muscle growth. However, the use of arbitrary pressures may place some individuals under complete arterial occlusion which may increase the potential risk of an adverse event.
Keywords: elbow flexion, KAATSU, occlusion training, resistance training, strength
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of time-of-day on oxidative stress, cardiovascular parameters, muscle damage parameters, and hormonal responses following the level-1 Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (YYIRT). A total of 11 healthy subjects performed an intermittent test (YYIRT) at two times-of-day (i.e., 07:00 h and 17:00 h), with a recovery period of ≥36 h in-between, in a randomized order. Blood samples were taken at the rest (baseline) and immediately (post-YYIRT) after the YYIRT for measuring oxidative stress, biochemical markers, and hormonal response. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way and two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni test at p < 0.05. Observed power (α = 0.05) and partial eta-squared were used. Our results showed that oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal aerobic speed, and the total distance covered tended to be higher in the evening (17:00 h). There was also a main effect of time-of-day for cortisol and testosterone concentration, which were higher after the YYIRT in the morning (p < 0.05). The heart rate peak and the rating of perceived exertion scales were lower in the morning (p < 0.05). However, the plasma glucose (p < 0.01), malondialdehyde, creatine kinase (p < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (p < 0.05), high-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01), total cholesterol (p < 0.01), and triglycerides (p < 0.05) were higher after the YYIRT in the evening. Low-density lipoprotein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and lactate levels (p > 0.05) were similar for the morning and evening test. In conclusion, our findings suggest that aerobic performance presents diurnal variation with great result observed in the evening accompanied by an improvement of hormonal, metabolic, and oxidative responses. These data may help to guide athletes and coaches and contribute to public health recommendations on exercise and muscle damage particularly in the competitive periods.
Keywords: YYIRT, time-of-day, cardiovascular response, biochemical response, hormonal response, oxidative stress