Abstract:The operation of the committees whose task was to set the border can be divided into two phases. One of them was the ‚delimitation’, which means to establish and work on site the political borderline described in the peace treaty. The other was the ‚demarcation’, which was setting the border as a purely technical process. Points marked on the map had to be marked with real points on the spot, plus perpetuated by different border signs. After that the borderline could be measured, which actually means mapping the borderline and its surroundings in a particular lane. The activity and moving of the committees extended only to a narrow lane on both sides of the Trianon line, which showed that they were only prepared for local adjustment. The borderlines were divided into sections in order to share the setting, measuring and financial burden. The setting of the borderline was proceeded only slowly and in more phases in most of the sections as the committee was voting. Nevertheless, by the end of 1922 it was completed, except some minor parts. After that each border point was perpetuated with different border signs according to their importance. The mapping of the borderline was executed in a given lane. After signing the border documents the committees were broken up as their task was finally carried out. Nevertheless, in some places there were small rectifications, partly by the decision of the committees, partly due to referenda, is one case the League of Nations expressed the last word.
Keywords: Trianon Peace Treaty, state border, Boundary Committee, delimitation, demarcation, metes and bounds
Abstract: In the Austrian–Hungarian Monarchy there were permanent controversies on the ethnic problems and in these discussions the notions of “clean ethnic space” and “language border” played important role. They were emphasised especially by the nationalities of the Monarchy which were getting into advantageous political situation towards the end of the 1st World War. Partly by appreciation of necessity also the Hungarian politics found in these approaches the perspectives for the territorial defence; however, by this manner the presentation of the Hungarian ethnic weight – which was considerable in the administrative centres beyond the “language border” – has been given up. Unfortunately, the detailed surveys of this aspect were mostly missing both from the pre- and the post-Trianon analyses. Therefore, it is worth introducing some less known characteristics of the data regarding the ethnic composition.
Keywords: ethnicity, mother tongue, language border, Trianon Treaty, ethnic statistics
Abstract: Being a teacher isn’t just about education, it’s about so much more. Geography is a very complex subject. In addition to the transfer of knowledge, our task is also to develop our students. Competence is a term often used nowadays, but it is in several cases not well interpreted, and it is confused with other terms. Competence means proficiency in something. The three components of competence- development are the development of knowledge, skills and attitudes, as a result of wich the skills are created. Since the early 2000’s, competences has also been included in the national core curriculum, wich are referred to as „key-competencies”. Among the key competences, we present „thinking skills” in detail. Defining the concept of thinking is not an easy task. Defining thinking skills, or cognitive competence is also complicated, and the situation is even more complicated due to the special nature of geography. Therefore, we examined the evolution of the characteristics of the subjest of geography, with special regard to the separation of physical geography and social geography. As with all subjects, the main goal of teaching geography is to educate young people who are independent, creative, recognize connections and think systemically. The goal is to teach them so, that after graduating from school, students will be able to see the world in a complex way. Textbook is the most widely available teaching tool. Therefore, we examined the possibilities of the textbook provides for the joint development of physical geography and socio-geography thinking, thus for the developments a complex approach. In our research, we focused on the topic of the atmosphere, because it offers many oppurtunities for complex development.
Keywords: cognition, reasoning, thinking skills, general intelligence, cognitive competence, geography, education, textbook
Abstract: The stimulus-threshold and interests of students has massively been changed in the last few decades. Nowadays the students belonging to the generation Z and alfa; their education requires new methodology, of which part could be also the gamification. It is a method, which gamification helps. Gamification is a method which uses playful elements in ordinary situations, making the learning experience fun and interesting.
Keywords: game, play, gamification, motivation, commitment, non-playful environment, active