After the terrorist attacks against the twin towers of the World Trade Centre and against the Pentagon on the 11th of September 2001, there was a quick response not only from the government, but also from legislators. Congress passed the "Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001" (USA Patriot Act), which was signed by President George W. Bush on the 26th of October 2001. The majority of society supported ratification mainly because people realised that they had become vulnerable on their own soil. This was a turning point in American legislative trends. It was necessary because the previously well functioning intelligence and investigative forces, means and methods were not efficient any more. The Patriot Act empowered the US intelligence and investigative agencies to the extent of giving them practically a carte blanche. The Act made the creation and empowerment of organizations that facilitate coordination and eliminate duplication (of efforts) in counter terrorism possible. Considering the leading role of the US and the outcome of terrorist attacks in Europe, there is a desire in Europe to introduce strict legislation similar to the US Patriot Act. This raises a number of questions that can be summed up in just one sentence: which is more important in a society: to guarantee security or to enforce fundamental rights?
This study tackles just a section of Hungarian critical infrastructure protection and wishes to contribute to increasing security against terrorist threats endangering infrastructures. These are prerequisites for the functioning of the key services, the economy, the government and public administration. The study concludes that the protection of critical infrastructure against terrorism requires specific criteria, procedures and means of action.
The 9/11 terrorist attacks were milestones in many ways in the history of international terrorism, or global terrorism as it has been more widely used ever since. Naturally, globalization affects organizations involved in the fight against terrorism; it is very important to put them in international context even in country-specific analysis and in identifying effective counter-measures. After 9/11, financing of terrorism became an important issue as events pointed out that devastating terrorist attacks could be funded from mundane, ordinary financial resources and via simple channels. As a result, the defence and intelligence agencies, in addition to their usual duties, needed to engage in financial intelligence evaluation and analysis related to individuals, groups and organizations linked to terrorism.
A mű eredeti címe: Alain Chouet Au coeur des services spéciaux – La menace islamiste: fausses pistes et vrais dangers, Éd. La Découverte, Paris, 2011.