To find a suitable site for a 150,000 metric ton dry material per year (t dm/yr) input capacity biorefinery plant in Hungary is a challenging task. Not only biomass potentials have to be assessed, competing uses, sustainability aspects, public opinion and future threats to feedstock availability should be also taken into account. As a result of our calculations, currently there is enough feedstock available for the targeted input capacity to operate in an ecologically sustainable way. However, several factors may threaten the future of feedstock availability. In the long run enhanced price competition is anticipated for biomass among biorefinery, livestock keeping, timber industry and biomass based renewable energy production. The majority of stakeholders accept in general biorefinery as a promising solution for substituting fossil based plastics, still local interests give priority to a balanced agricultural production including higher shares of husbandry.
Keywords: bioenergy, biomass potentials, biorefinery plant, planning approaches, sustainability
Xanthan gum is one of the major commercial biopolymers employed in many industrial processes owing to its unique physical properties such as a high degree of pseudoplasticity and high viscosity even at low concentrations. Commercially available xanthan gum is relatively expensive due to glucose or sucrose being used as the sole carbon source for its production and cost reduction could be achieved by using less expensive substrates, such as food industrial wastewaters. Effluents from the confectionery industry, because of its high organic content, are significant environmental pollutants and before their release into environment it is necessary to purify them. The present study examines xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris under aerobic conditions on wastewaters from five different factories of the confectionery industry. Xanthan yield was obtained as a quantitative characteristic of the process and was in the range between 4.28 g/L and 10.03 g/L and its quality is determined by following rheological characteristics of obtained cultivation media. The results obtained in this study indicate that wastewater from confectionary industry can be used as the basis of media for the production of this highly valuable product.
Keywords: xanthan, wastewater treatment, biosynthesis, sucrose
The wider applications of all membrane separation processes have a main obstacle, namely the fouling phenomena, which have to be understood in more details. Surface properties, hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics of a polymer membrane can be determined by measuring the contact angle. The hydrophilicity of a membrane has an important influence on its performances, like permeate flux, membrane rejection or membrane fouling characteristics. In our work the contact angles of three kinds of typically commercial ultrafiltration (UF-PES-4), nanofiltration (NE-90) and reverse osmosis (LFC-30) membranes were firstly investigated and compared by contact angle goniometer measurements. The relationships between the contact angles were researched by well considering the effects of membrane sample pretreatments by distilled water prewetting and water droplet volume. Furthermore, the effects of prewetting, water droplet contact time on different molecular weight cut-off ultrafiltration membranes’ surface and droplet pH on the contact angle values were also investigated. Moreover, fresh, clean and dry, as well as pretreated, and fouled UF membranes were also measured and compared.
Keywords: contact angle, goniometer, hydrophilicity, polymer membrane
Recycling waste products of food industry is important: one side because of the environmental aspects and the other side because of the economic reasons. The one of the most preferred basic material for second generation bio-fuels might be the tobacco (Ábel et al. 2011). The cost of the process depends on the cost of the hydrolysis of cellulose/lignocelluloses i.e. and the cost of the enzymes. These enzymes are very expensive and that is why it is so important to find a good enzyme recovery method.
In my research the membrane separation was used for enzyme recovery. Different polyether-sulphone membranes with cut-off value of 7 kDa (PES7) and 10 kDa (PES10) were used for separation the hydrolyzate.
Keywords: recycling, enzymes, membrane
Artificial Neural Networks along with Image Processing Systems have proven to be successful, particularly in the domains of mathematics, science and technology. They have gained quite notable advantages beyond classical learning, as their usable engagement are observable in many fields of scientific environment related to the relevant systems. This paper presents a model for identifying the small components parts. The model may be significant in various industries mainly in engineering processing system areas. The objective of the study is to apply Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in Image Processing System (IPS) with feed forward structure to detect, and recognize different parts or any other environment products on a moving conveyor bel. In the proposed model, we have used appropriate method of edge detection. The edge detection realizes artificial neural network with noise. The paper emphasizes the implementation of the model considering functionality, parts images, accurate detection and identifying the different components. The result shows that the model can detect moving objects (products of many kinds) accurately on the conveyor belt with very high success rate and sort them accordingly for further processes.
Keywords: process engineering, model, ANN, detection, products
There is no room for debate about that the quality is one of the most important competitive factor and nobody against that this quality virus has to be spread. The paper would like to help with methods and techniques -what are not well known and used in the domestic organizations- to spread this virus in different fields of the organization. Its strategic motto is: Instead of quality management development and improvement the quality of the management has to be developed in the interest of quality management.
Today, that idea has to be given up what says more and more modern quality systems development start is needed instead of it the whole quality of the management has to be developed. High level of the quality system is not equal with the high quality of the management. It has to be turned. The high level of the management quality will ensure the possibility of well operating high level quality management. The paper wants to present this from different aspects on the one hand by comparing the classical development of quality management systems on the other hand by new (volume, profit and quality) approaches of certain management elements and methods.
Keywords: quality virus, quality conscious management, Seghezzi palace, management and quality management connections, new audit approaches, domestic quality model
Based on the general mathematical model of Illés Dudás which is appropriate for mathematical modelling of production technology methods we have worked out a model for resharpening analysis of conical hob. After the hob resharpening using numerical calculations the determination of the tooth surface of face gear by cutting edges is necessary for the analysis. Based on this methods we could calculate the permissible critical angle of the hob and the profiles of the hob and the face gear in axial section. The permissible critical angle of the hob is the critical angle the hob cutting edge of which manufactured face gear profile is situated in the permissible profile error tolerance. We have worked out a new geometric conical worm gear drive that is the conical worm gear drive having arched profile. Using this mathematical model we have done resharpening analysis for the hob having arched profile and determined the permissible critical angle.
Keywords: hob, face gear, mathematical model, resharpening
Soltvadkert is a little city between the Danube and Tisza rivers. In 1700s years was the first initiative to plant grape and now, Soltvadkert is can be proud of the award “The City of the Grape and Wine”. In our research, we used making of structured interview from primer methods. Five wine-makers were asked to know their opinion about the actual situation. We made a quantitative survey also, 100 inhabitants and 100 tourists have filled our questionnaire. The consumption habits linked to the wine, the knowledge about the winemakers of Soltvadkert, the wine-purchasing habit. The result of this survey is the SWOT analysis, which we made and show in this article The main weaknesses of the sector are: the wine forgery scandal, and the not too good level of the vine-consumption.
Keywords: winemakers, wine forgery scandal, qualitative survey, quantitative survey
In the popular perception, nuts were considered to have high content of fats and therefore were seen as unhealthy foods, which are indicted in different cardio-vascular diseases or diabetes. This perception has changed after the lately researches, which proved their healthy fatty acid profile of the walnut and its products. The walnut (Juglans regia L.) consumption is now associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart diseases, cancer and all other oxidative stress mediated diseases. Different studies had shown that the walnut leaves contain several phenolic compounds which contribute to their biological properties. Researchers are focused on walnut because it contains an important phenolic compound called juglone and it is used in the treatment of inflammatory and infectious diseases. They also inhibit the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and also fungi.
The present research has the priority to establish the proper method of extraction using walnut leaves and a mixture of solvents in different volumetric proportions. Primary the walnut leaves were extracted with a mixture of ethanol and water in proportions 50:50; 60:40; 70:30; 80:20. After the extracts were obtained, they were concentrated and the final extract was used to analysis.
Keywords: walnut leaves, antioxidant properties, heart diseases
Legitimate users of agricultural areas can receive land-based payments based on the area of either the cultivated plants or the uncultivated land kept, in line with the provisions of community and national legislation, in condition eligible for support. Furthermore, land-based support can be received via other rural development measures as well.According to European Commission regulation the appropriate and eligible claim of the land-based supports shall be controlled by the member states. The most robust technique of this process is the remote sensing control. The observed discrepancies shall be sanctioned based on their extent and intentional nature. A measurement tolerance interval shall be set in case of remote sensing operations so that the extent of discrepancy is to be determined in the most objective way possible. As far as the measurement tolerance interval is concerned the goal is to minimise the cumulative faults appearing during the measurements (such as the scale of agricultural activities, the inaccuracy of farmers’ drawings necessary for the claiming of support and the inaccuracy of control materials and methods).The establishment of the measurement tolerance interval is based on the fact that the reference parcels selected by the validation protocol are made by several operators in iterations. As a result of this process the following conclusions can be drawn:The validation method of multi-level tests required by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) properly detects the measurement results strongly affected by faults. Although this method is to be used exclusively to determine the technical tolerance in the Control with Remote Sensing (CwRS) process of the Integrated Administration and Control System (IACS), as independent validation process it does not take the further imagery and other vector references into account. In our examination we assessed the possible inclusion of the smallest identification unit of the Land Parcel Identification System (LPIS) – i.e. the physical block – as well as its impact on the value of technical tolerance.
Keywords: technical tolerance, orthoimagery, validation, LPIS, CwRS
There are a huge number of ideas at the area of traction drives and also at that of the epicyclic or by other words, planetary drives. The majority of these designs, contain solely rigid wheels, and the contact forces that are proportional to the transmitted torque are produced by separate clamping devices. The author introduced an innovative design, which integrates some elements with merging functions. A part of the contacting rollers are elastic ones and their shape assures the requirement of uniform strength. The curiosities of the elastic rollers are their shapes. Observing both their shapes and loads, they are helical torsion springs. They can be made of pure metals and composites, so of spring steel and also from fiber-reinforced plastics. There is a wide range of production technology considered depending on individual or mass production. The author has received some ideas from the areas of helical spring bearings, the machined torsion springs and the fiber-reinforced tubes. He also find a method to coil helical torsion spring of uniform strength from sheet metal, making the pre-manufactured “wire” of changing width by laser cutting, and to cut tubes by spark cutting.
Keywords: helical torsion spring, sheet metal, tube, laser cutting, spark cutting, fibre-reinforced palstic
Wood pellets have only become an important part of this boom in the past few years. Owners of large coal-fired power stations in Europe started searching for a way to fulfill the new regulations and to find a solution for the declining economic relevance of traditional coal-fired power stations due to their high carbon dioxide emissions. The answer was to give the old dirty giants a green coat of paint by “co-firing” regular coal power plants with wood pellets. Wood pellets have similar burning qualities to traditional coal and the costs of converting boilers to burn wood pellets are low. The idea of declaring wood pellets as a carbon neutral energy source was based on the assumption that the released emissions of carbon dioxide during the burning process are neutralized by the carbon that is captured and stored in newly growing trees. The idea of using wood as a renewable source was backed by environment organizations. More recent pellet investment projects as well as facilities currently under construction show that the production of wood pellets is being outsourced by the energy firms to companies specialized in wood pellet production. These firms are 100-percent focused on sourcing the raw material, operating the wood pellet production plant and handling the logistics for transporting the renewable resource.
Keywords: biomass, wood pellets, briquetting, sawdust, renewable-energy, environment
Tobacco plants (Nicotiana rustica, Nicotiana tabacum) produce abundant biomass in more than 100 countries and could be used to produce abundant biofuels. Tobacco is an ideal crop for biobased products; it is a perennial herbaceous plant. About one quarter of the tobacco plant is cellulosic material. Tobacco stem is a by-product in the tobacco industry after the tobacco leaves are harvested. The utilization ratio of tobacco stem is only approximately 40% due to difficulties in the comprehensive utilization technologies of tobacco stem. Therefore most of the tobacco stems have gone to waste. This biomass appears attractive for conversion to ethanol because it contains very low amounts of the hard-to-convert woody material lignin. The aim of this study is to identify the best parameters of the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process on tobacco based substrate. Just to make this technology cheaper, the enzyme recovery was investigated by membrane technology. Polyethersulfone membrane filters with 0.1 μm were used for microfiltration followed by determination of proteins using photometer and Kjeldahl method to measure the enzyme recovery. The aim was to decide whether the microfiltration membrane with cut-off 0.1 μm is a proper membrane for recycling the enzyme. During the filtration, increased resistance and decreased flux were detected.
Keywords: tobacco, biofuel, microfiltration
Besides creating a living place satisfying the unique demands of Hungarian grey cattle the planning of a winter shelter constructed in Ipolyvece (Ipolyvece Farm) has raised exceptionally diverse tasks as regards of fitting the shelter into the environment. This article introduces the different versions of related demands and answers as well as the finally approved solutions which have been created by using – due to necessity – the „research by planning” methodology.
The facility has been constructed for the winter housing of those cattle and their offsprings that live in and around the municipal area of Ipolyvece, i.e. in the alluvial pastures of the Ipoly river during the growing season (from April until the end of October).
The area involved in the planning process includes some plots and buildings of an animal husbandry facility built in the early 1960s. These real estates have been detached from the other parts of the farm and given to the current operator as a result of the privatisation process of the early 1990s.
The installations are situated in the mild North-western slope of Börzsöny mountains. This slope is bounded by a railroad embankment running around the built-up area of the settlement. The embankment is perpendicular to the slope thus creating a valley where the runoff of water is not ensured. A particularly sensitive groundwater supply can be found below the area; this fact makes special protective measures necessary in order to restrain the utilisation and environmental impact of the surface area.
Keywords: animal keeping facility reconstruction, protection of groundwater supply, loose housing for Hungarian grey cattle, settlement planning
The authors present the general aspects of theoretical modeling of gasoline injection, the principle modeling of some of the elements of gasoline injection, namely the gasoline pump model and the pressure regulator model. It is presented the general model of a spark engine with gasoline injection. The modeling of the motor cycles with spark engines and gasoline injection suggested by the authors is realized by executing a computer program for determining the variation of the three-dimensional and bi-dimensional parameters with the sub-programs: program for calculating the SIE (dependence according to n and λ at to=-35...+45ºC and po=1·102 kPa); program for calculating the SIE (dependence according to n and to at λ=1 and po=1·102 kPa);program for calculating the SIE cycle with gasoline injection. It was realized a study for calculating the pressure from the admission gallery pga and the admission pressure pa.
Keywords: pressure regulator, valve, pulverization, duration of injection
The role of D-amino acids of foods in the human health is a strongly discussed topic and usually, data came from the investigation of cow milk. We have studied the free D-aspartic acid and free D-glutamic acid content of sheep milk, heat-treated sheep milk at various temperatures and various products of sheep milk. Raw sheep milk didn’t contain free D-aspartic and D-glutamic acid in remarkable amount and ratio 5.92% free D-aspartic acid; 2.62% free D-glutamic acid). Our heat-treatments didn’t cause major change in the free D-aspartic and D-glutamic acid content (max.: 7.8% free D-aspartic acid; 5.3% free D-glutamic acid in total free aspartic and glutamic acid). Contrary, all of the investigated products contained high level of free D-amino acids. The free D-aspartic acid and free D-glutamic acid content of the products were 16,9-39,5%,and 13,3-27% in the percent of total free amino acids. The racemization of aspartic acid was higher, than that of glutamic acid in every product. The D-amino acid content of fermented milk products was higher than in different cheeses.
Keywords: free D-aspartic acid, free D-glutamic acid, sheep milk, dairy products
Money laundering is the process whereby the proceeds of crime are transformed into ostensibly legitimate money or other assets. The actuality of the subject derives from the Select Committee on the Evaluation of Anti Money Laundering Measures aided by the Financial Action Task Force. Money obtained from certain crimes, such as extortion, drug trafficking, illegal gambling and tax evasion trough off shore companies as "dirty". The reason of the Committee program is to give aides to those countries which wore not FATF members as money laundering is the most profit yielding business on the world with it’s 2800 milliard USD turnover. This organization controls Hungary by supervising the law and overall actions giving a so called Progress Report about the achievements.
In aspect of criminal affairs Money laundering includes all activities which achieve to transform the origin of funds coming from criminal activity as well as tax evasion activity into a legalized form. Money laundering as a phenomenon became a global problem in the second half of the 20th century parallel to sudden increase of drug trafficking. In the past few decades money laundering and the chain of criminal activities as underlying offences got into the scope of the leading economic states. Those activities of money laundering maximally exploit the free movement of capital and financial services. In both the economy and political life there is a need for having laws and regulations against money laundering which rigorously regulate the different financial, bank supervisory activities. According to estimations in the nineties three hundred billion dollars were circulating annually across the world in order to be laundered. Nowadays this figure is well over thousand billion dollars.
Keywords: money laundering, financial action task, terrorist financing
The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the actual emergency medical attendance through an exemplary hospital in Hungary, highlighting its possible imperfections which could perhaps be improved through further structural developments. In order to be expressive, the article follows through the journey of two nominal patients who turned up in the emergency department of the hospital. The importance of this topic is expressed by the fitful judgment of the emergency attendance. Emergency service had already existed in the United States, only later then did the one-entrance service system start to develop Hungary. In some places this system has been working well for decades, but for instance at the University of Szeged – due to the uncertain judgment of the system – the construction is just being finalized, right at the time when such studies are published that question the reason of existence of the emergency departments – at least in their actual form.
Keywords: emergency, logistics, hospital, Székesfehérvár, medical care, SBO EMD
Agricultural strategy has always played a major role in the development of agriculture. Its role is perceivable when reviewing the state of the integration of the poultry industry before and after the transition of the political system. Before the transition, both horizontal and vertical integration solutions were present in the poultry industry in Hungary, however, after the transition only vertical integration solutions remained. The current agricultural strategy (National Rural Strategy 2012-2020) and the sectoral strategy developed by the PPC (Hungarian Poultry Product Council) lays great emphasis on the promotion of forms of integration in accordance with the objectives of the CAP 2014-2020. The level of integration of the poultry industry in Hungary has not yet reached that of Western Europe, as in , therefore it is very important to support the existing forms of integration in this sector and to encourage the establishment of further integration.
Keywords: vertical integration, horizontal integration, poultry industry, sectoral strategy, national rural strategy
Using Fluid Dynamics Analysis (CFD) provides the opportunity to achieve a faster and more thorough study of fluid flow processes and is an important step to obtain information that cannot be obtained otherwise. The finite element method is generally more accurate than the finite volume method, but finite volume method can achieve more accurate mass balances using the balance sheet continuity per volume control. Finite volume method is more appropriate when fluid transport, while the finite element method is used more in the calculations of tension or conduction, which satisfies local continuity condition, is of less importance. Fluid Dynamics Analysis (CFD) is used in numerical analyzes, based on a set of mathematical expressions on linear complex equations defining fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer. This paper presents the simulation of air flow through a tube of special construction in interpreting the law of Bernoulli energy. Laboratory systems are shown, respectively simulating the actual fluid flow.
Keywords: Bernoulli, simulation, Autodesk, CFD