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Analecta technica Szegedinensia 2014/1


  • Dóra Székely ,
    Attila Csighy ,
    Mónika Stéger-Máté ,
    Judit Monspart-Sényi :

    The theme of the study is the examination of heavy metal accumulating ability of commercially available chicken, pork and beef liver samples and comparison with the limits specified by the laws. The measurements were carried out with the Delta XRF device manufactured by Innov-X, which operates on the principle of X-ray radiation. The lead content of all samples of the first and second sampling were beyond the maximum level (0.5 mg/kg) which is required by the Commission Regulation 1881/2006. The measured values were between 2 and 3 mg/kg for both samplings. In case the samples of the third sampling the lead content could not be detected by the applied device. The cadmium contents of the all samples of three samplings exceeded the required cadmium limit in the regulation (0.5 mg/kg). The measured values were between 10 and 20 mg/kg in case of all samples. Tin and mercury contents were not detected in the investigated samples by the applied measurement method. Among the non-toxic heavy metals the samples contained high amounts of iron and manganese, in additional each samples contained small amount of zinc, rubidium and antimony but these does not constitute a health risk due to the minimal amounts.

    Keywords:heavy metals, chicken liver, pork liver, beef liver, X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

  • Szilárd Szélpál ,
    Zsuzsanna Kohány ,
    Eszter Fogarassy ,
    József Csanádi ,
    Gyula Vatai ,
    Cecília Hodúr :

    The largest quantities of by-product of the dairy, namely whey comes from the cheese making. The whey proteins are used by the agriculture in animal nutrition, and by the human nutrition as well; dry soups, infant formulas and supplements. The aim of our experiments was the separation of the lipid fraction of whey. During the measurements 0.05 μm, 0.2 μm and 0.45 μm microfiltration membranes were used in vibrating membrane filtration equipment (VSEP) and in a laboratory tubular membrane module. During the microfiltration, analytical characteristics, the fouling and the retention values were examined. Using the VSEP and the tubular module made possible to compare the effect of vibration, the static mixer and/ the airflow on the separation parameters.

    Keywords:whey, vibratory filtration, static mixer, tubular filtration, airflow

  • Mihaela Cirimbei ,
    Camelia Vizireanu :

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) is a perennial herb belonging to the Brassicaceae family and contains biologically active substances. Since horseradish has long been used as a spice for meat and fish products, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved it as seasoning, spice, and flavoring and affirmed it as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). Scientists are interested in horseradish because it is a rich source of peroxidase, a heme-containing enzyme that utilizes hydrogen peroxide to oxidize a wide variety of organic and inorganic compounds. Also horseradish is rich in other valuable substances – vitamins, minerals, phenolic compounds and also isothiocyanates. The aim of the current research was to determine best solvent for extraction of phenolic compounds from horseradish roots showing high antiradical activity. From horseradish roots were extracted with four different ratio of solvent: ethanol/ water (80/20, 70/30, 60/40, 50/50 v/v) using conventional methods and then concentrated to rotary evaporator. Preliminary tests showed that the best solvent ethanol/ water (80/20 v/v) solutions can be chosen.

    Keywords:horseradish roots, extraction of phenolic compounds, antiradical activity

  • Anita Vidács ,
    Judit Krisch ,
    Csaba Vágvölgyi :
    Disinfection action of some essential oils on stainless steel18-21en [405.45 kB - PDF]EPA-02592-00001-0040

    Bacteria can attach to different surfaces and form biofilm. Biofilms can cause a big problem in food industry by contamination of food items and reduction of the effectiveness of machines. In the biofilm bacteria are less exposed to the different disinfectants, than the free living cells. Essential oils (EO) with known antimicrobial effect can also inhibit biofilm formation. In our experiments minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal bactericide concentrations (MBC) of the investigated EOs: cinnamon, juniper and lemon were determined by macro-dilution method on Pseudomonas putida and E.coli. Cinnamon showed the best antibacterial effect with MBC values of 2mg/ml forE. coli and 4mg/ml forP.putida. Thebactericidaleffect of EOsdependedontheactingtime. We established 80 minutes forP. putida and 120 (cinnamon EO) and 240 (juniper EO) min forE. coli. The disinfection potential of the EOs were studied on P. putida and E. coli 1 and 7 days old biofilms formed on industrial stainless steel surfaces. Each of the EO was effective. The number of P. putida cells was reduced up to 99% and we had similar result by 1 day old E. coli biofilm. The cell number of 7 days old E. coli biofilm was reduced by 62.5% with cinnamon EO and juniper EO reduced it by 87%.

    Keywords:biofilm, essential oils, MIC/MBC, stainless steel

  • János Gősi ,
    József Gál :
    Economy and politics in Hungary during 2nd Orbán government period22-26en [288.25 kB - PDF]EPA-02592-00001-0050

    The 2nd Orbán government and the more than two-thirds parliamentary majority behind a relatively heavy heritage took over in the summer of 2010. The left-liberal governments of GDP in 2006-2009, reaching 12% of the size of austerity (expenditure cuts and tax lifting) as a result of Hungary's policy is not developed in a similar situation as the crisis in Greece. The most difficult years of the crisis – between March and June 2009 – the international debt financing market premium for loans fall from six percent to two, the euro exchange rate is reduced from 270 to 315 HUF. The 2nd Orbán government's so-called unorthodox economic policies – which happened to break with the IMF and serious political disagreements with the EU has been associated with – as a result of increased to HUF exchange rate of 300, the premium at the end of 2011 exceeded 6% again; currently around 3%, although the EU abolished the excessive deficit procedure against Hungary, and the sixth year of the current account is positive. Hungary's GDP after a 6.7% decline in 2009, in 2010 – faster than expected – increased by 1.2%, in 2011 was only 0.7% in 2012 and 1.7 % drop. Accelerated use of the 2007-2013 periods, EU investment funds due to a 1-1.5% in 2014 and expected in 2013 2-2.5% growth. The Hungarian economic performance in the last decade since EU accession has been at average of less than 0.5% per year increased. The durable and – at least – from 2.5 to 3.5% growth per year have failed to materialize in the domestic political economy foundations between 2010 to 2014.

    Keywords:macroeconomics, 2nd Orbán Government, unorthodox economic policies, deficit

  • Zita ©ereą ,
    Gyula Vatai ,
    Ljubica Dokić ,
    Dragana ©oronja-Simović ,
    Cecília Hodúr ,
    Bojana Ikonić ,
    Ivana Nikolić ,
    Biljana Pajin :

    Despite the fact that the sugar industry is one of the causes of the environmental pollution, not enough has been done on its improvement. According to CEFS, specific energy consumption was 31.49 kWh/100 kg sugar beet. While the overall water used is about 15 m3/t sugar beet processed, the consumption of fresh water is 0.25 – 0.4 m3/t sugar beet processed, or even less in modern sugar factories. The separation operation deserves special attention because of its significant consumption of water end energy. Ultrafiltration could be one of the solutions for energy saving and more effective separation of coloured compounds (which during the crystallisation build into the sucrose crystals) from intermediate products from which sucrose directly crystallises.
    The aim of this experimental work is to determine the influence of operating parameters on the efficiency on coloured matter removal in high concentrated syrup. In this work syrup solution, which is an intermediate product in the phase of sucrose crystallisation, with 60% dry matter content, is the main feed. Experimental investigations were performed on 20 nm ceramic tubular membrane. Effects of colour removal on syrup solution are investigated at 60 and 80º C, in the range of transmembrane pressure between 4 and 10 bars. Optimal values of flow rates are chosen between 100 and 400 L/h. For defining the effects of the membrane separation process, permeate flux are determined. According to mentioned conditions colour is by 35 - 40 % in average, and turbidity is by 80% in average lower according to the feed. The permeate flux could be reached is 45 L/m2h at flow rate 400 L/h and at 80oC.

    Keywords:sugar industry, ultrafiltration, non-sucrose compunds, colour remoal

  • Dr. Brigitta Zsótér ,
    Anikó Tóth :

    In Abony there was a large number of investments between 2006 and 2011 which involved infrastructure. A significant part of them was realized in the framework of EU subsidies and also with the financial support of New Hungary Development Plan – Central-Hungarian Operative Program. During our research we applied the questionnaire method as a result of which we had 608 questionnaire forms filled in. We aimed to examine if there was a change in life quality and the standards of living of the inhabitants due to the investments and also how much they are satisfied with the work of town development of the local council. We can conclude from the research that the investments were not efficient and successful enough. They did not affect most of the inhabitants positively, and the inhabitants think that these investments were not really necessary. There are several reasons for this opinion, for example lack of workplaces, the bad quality roads and lack of entertainment facilities.

    Keywords:investment, infrastructure, standards of living, resident satisfaction, lack of workplaces

  • Dr. Brigitta Zsótér ,
    Renáta Kaliczka :

    Different shop types have different life cycles: introduction, growth, stagnation and decline. The form of supermarkets is in a stage of decline in each EU country. For customers coming to the supermarkets of Coop Co., in Szeged is typical to do their shopping every day or more times a week. Shoppers come to do mainly their daily shopping in the shops. The main reasons for choosing them were the wide range of goods and the suitable accessibility of shops. Coop has its own brand which is very popular with customers. There are customers who directly come to the shops to buy products with this brand. Shoppers would extend the range of products with Coop-brand and also would like to see longer opening hours. The customer segment involves people living close to the shops. Our questionnaire survey supports these statements.

    Keywords:shopping habits, costumers, supermarket, questionnaire survey, sales

  • László Csambalik ,
    Anna Divéky-Ertsey ,
    Márta Ladányi ,
    Csaba Orbán :

    Susceptibility to abiotic disorders could play a key role in the utilization of landraces of tomato. These races have been abandoned due to non-compatibility to today’s intensive agriculture. As there is dissatisfaction on present varieties and hybrids in the context of flavor and nutritional value, landraces could be a viable alternative for the enhancement of these parameters either “per se” or as breeding background. However, frequent occurrence of abiotic disorders causes yield losses. The hypothesis of the present study is that removal of irregular fruit parts positively influences the nutritional profile of tomato in the context of investigated parameters. In the present study influence of abiotic disorders on total soluble solids (TSS), acid (TA) and lycopene content was investigated on six Hungarian tomato landraces and two commercial varieties. Abiotic disorders occurred were mainly cracking, green shoulder, sunburst and catfacing. Propagation materials were provided by Plant Biodiversity Center Tápiószele. The experiment is supported by Research Institute of Organic Agriculture, ÖMKi.
    Our results showed that abiotically disordered plant parts have an impact on TSS, TA and lycopene content, however, in case of investigated accessions and varieties the difference was seldom significant. Only in case of TSS a tendency can be experienced, where all samples showed lower results after the removal of abiotically disordered plant parts. In case of TA and lycopene content no tendencies could have been withdrawn.

    Keywords:tomato, abiotic disorders, landrace, nutritional values, lycopene

  • Róbert Fekete ,
    József Gál :

    The study of Kiskunfélegyháza hospital rehabilitation department of the launch and operation are summarized in the light of the results data. Started in May 2005, public investment is achieved, containing functional reconstruction of partial hospitalization as a result of enlargement, was delivered in September 2006, was built to exploit the thermal rehabilitation unit, which includes a 40-bed department on the first floor, the ground floor clinic rooms, the spa offers therapeutic and physiotherapy service rooms and swimming pools, the basement of mechanical rooms. A further problem in question – the subject-oriented guide to healing, health, illness, and a definition of rehabilitation took place – according to the literature. It will be determined in the prevention, injury, disability and concepts of disability in the light of the logistics. Write the process that accompanies the service, taking into account the economic aspects of the market.
    Have been processed under the rehabilitated patient population, patient registration data by age between 2007 and 2012. Considering the cases of the total care days are the number of transferees from other classes, social and home placement per capita average care days in the bed occupancy and the number of death cases were surveyed on written questionnaires.
    Rehabilitation hospital care is most effective with measurable - which can be seen in the analysis - that of the average length of more than 18 days, the bed occupancy of 100% and a mortality rate of 2%. However, the situation logistical aspects of the process can be improved further by examining the quantitative and qualitative indicators of well. The topic niche processing, rehabilitation domestic situation analysis has been very little. The results are set out proposals to increase the efficiency of operation.

    Keywords:rehabilitation, logistics, musculoskeletal rehabilitation, therapy, post operation treatment

  • Vasile Alexa ,
    Sorin Ratiu ,
    Imre Kiss :

    The complexity of the processes taking place in a system of fuel injection management for an internal combustion engine requires extra effort for a proper understanding of the operating principles. This paper is intended to be an intuitive practical application able to simulate the complex electronic control of injection, through a PC and specialized software. The application provides an intuitive and friendly analysis of the processes occurring during the operation of an injection computer. Moreover, the system allows the determination of the gasoline amount injected by the various types of fuel injectors, in a certain period of time and at different pressures of the fuel, depending on the load, speed and thermal regime of the engine. The laboratory assembly for a fuel injection system is intended as an experimental stand with exclusive didactical applicability. We want to observe the main characteristics of a fuel feeding and injection system, as the identification of components for the control system, data acquisition system and fuel injection system, the analysis of the different types of signals that can be used to actuate the injectors, the establishing the principles of injector operation in accordance with the control electronics, the visualization of the injection cadence and amount injected, depending on the engine speed and load, the programming of injection computers etc.

    Keywords:fuel injection, modern internal combustion engines, laboratory assembly

  • Imre Kiss :

    The researches of durability in the exploitation of cast-iron rolls define experimentally an important chapter from the thermal fatigue of the organs of machines in the movement of rotation, in variable temperature mediums. The researches on the durability in exploitation of hot rolling mill rolls represent an important scientific and economical issue. This paper presents original experimental equipment by the help of which the durability of hot rolling mills can be studied. This experimental equipment permits the evaluation of exploitation durability for hot rolls by studying the thermal fatigue phenomenon which appears in the case of machine components. The exploitation durability is evaluated through thermal fatigue cycles up to crack point due to thermal fatigue for each condition and each type of studied material. The study represents a detailed approach of the influence of various technological factors on the durability in exploitation of rolling mill rolls made of different steel and pig iron grades and suggests solutions meant to increase the durability of the rolls in exploitation.

    Keywords:organs of machines, thermal fatigue, durability, temperature mediums

  • Ljubica Dokić ,
    Ivana Nikolić ,
    Dragana ©oronja–Simović ,
    Zita ©ereą ,
    Veljko Krstonoąić ,
    Aleksandar Fiąteą :
    Physical properties of dough for cookies with chestnut flour66-71en [505.34 kB - PDF]EPA-02592-00001-0130

    A challenge for food producers is certainly to find suitable flour that can replace wheat flour in the production of flour–based products. Chestnut flour can be adequate substitute for wheat flour in the production of gluten–free flour confectionary products, due to high starch and sugar content. The objective of this work was to characterize physical changes, rheological and textural properties of dough for cookies with chestnut flour. The control dough was only with wheat flour. The substitution of wheat flour with chestnut flour for examined dough samples was at three different levels (20, 40 and 60%). Moisture of the dough was 22%.
    Dynamic oscillatory measurements describe all dough samples as typical viscoelastic systems with dominant elastic modulus G' over viscous modulus G". The modulus ratio (tan δ=G"/G') decreased with increase in amount of chestnut flour. Also, the dough compliance (J) determined by creep and recovery curves decreased, thus more chestnut flour resulted in more brittle consistency of the dough. Texture determination confirmed the rheological results. Resistance to extension of the control dough sample was the highest, as well as dough extensibility. Application of chestnut flour and increase in its amount reduced these texture parameters for dough samples. Optimal physical properties of dough were achieved with low amounts of chestnut flour of 20%.

    Keywords:chestnut flour, cookies dough, rheology, texture

  • Violeta Kneľević ,
    Vladimir Filipović ,
    Biljana Lončar ,
    Milica Nićetin ,
    Tatjana Kuljanin ,
    Ljubinko Lević ,
    Lato Pezo :
    Re-use of osmotic solution72-76en [495.86 kB - PDF]EPA-02592-00001-0140

    In this paper the re-use of osmotic solution after osmotic treatment has been studied. A large amount of used osmotic solution remaining after the process is one of the major unsolved problems of osmotic treatment process. This problem has both ecological and economic aspects that should be concerned. Pork meat cubes were treated in three different osmotic solutions diluted with distilled water (R1 -sugar beet molasses, R2 – solution of salt and sucrose and R3 - combination of R1 and R2 solutions in a 1:1 mass ratio). Osmotic process has been observed during 5 hours, at temperature of 35oC and atmospheric pressure. Osmotic treatment has been performed simultaneously in concentrated solutions and diluted solutions (dilutions were obtained by mixing the solution and water in the mass ratio of 7:1 and 3:1). Parameters monitored during osmotic treatment were: dry mater content (DMC), water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and osmotic dehydration efficiency index (DEI). Maximum values of these parameters were obtained in the dehydration with concentrated solutions, while recorded values in diluted solutions were much lower.
    The results show that the least effect on the osmotic process efficiency, when the osmotic concentration is lowered, has been observed for solution R3. This conclusion indicates that molasses is good osmotic solution with the possibility of re-using in successive processes of osmotic dehydration, with minimal treatment of reconstitution to original values of concentration.

  • Árpád Ferencz ,
    Márta Nótári :
    The consumer judgement of the price of the traditional foods77-80en [322.74 kB - PDF]EPA-02592-00001-0150

    Price strategy is a peculiar aspect of the marketing model called Marketing Mix. Pricing related decisions usually constitute the hardest and most sensitive set of decisions that entrepreneurs have to make. The Hungarian consumers' high price sensitivity coupled with a high demand for low-cost products and services indicates the significance of pricing in Hungary. Pricing is crucial in raising interest and winning new customers. Prices might reflect product quality, brand strength and recognition, just like product differentiation or the image of a product or its producer. Consumers of traditional region-specific horticultural and agricultural products are willing to pay a higher price in appreciation of the high quality and special character of these products as this consumer segment tends to assign emotional functions to certain product features instead of solely focusing on the functionality and usefulness of the goods.

    Keywords:price setting, pricing strategy, willingness to pay, customer perception

  • B. Czank ,
    Péterné Ács ,
    Zs. Kovács ,
    É. Cs. Czankné ,
    L. Bóna :
    The puff-pastry making properties of triticale flour81-84en [308.30 kB - PDF]EPA-02592-00001-0160

    The flour (100% Tc) of the triticale variety GK Szemes bred at the Cereal Research Non-Profit Ltd. was tested for food purposes, namely, for puff-pastry making properties. The control dough was made of BL 55 plain wheat flour (100% BL). Flour mixtures (flour mixtures I and II) were prepared by mixing wheat flour and triticale flour to different ratios. The flours, their mixtures, and the puff-pastry made of them, respectively, were analyzed according to the terms of the Hungarian Food Codex for the following rheological traits: gluten content, falling number, farinograph water absorption, and extensibility. The data reflected that the triticale flour and wheat flour mixtures had advantageous baking industrial properties. The dough of flour mixtures was easier to handle manually than the control. The dough on flour mixture II basis was ranked higher than that of flour mixture I in terms of sensory properties. Therefore flour mixture II had been chosen to bake Chelsea bun-type puff-pastry with savoury (pizza cream) flavouring. Triticale has favourable agronomic traits and beneficial nutrition value and therefore it is expected to become a valuable food component.

    Keywords:triticale, flour mixture, puff-pastry

  • Vesna M. Vučurović ,
    Radojka N. Razmovski ,
    Uroą D. Miljić ,
    Vladimir S. Puąkaą ,
    Marijana M. Ačanski ,
    Kristian A. Pastor :

    Recently, research on the alcoholic fermentation of kitchen waste has been accelerating for both ecological and economical reasons, primarily for ethanol use as renewable biofuel. Present work deals with the fermentative production of ethanol from different starch based kitchen waste. Kitchen waste from local students restaurant was separated by basic component as: peas, green beans, beans, rice, potato, wheat bread and corn. Thermo-acidic pretreatment of these raw materials was conducted by the addition of HCl up to pH of 1, and by autoclaving at 120oC for 30 min. From the experimental result, maximum ethanol yield was obtained from wheat bread (0.11 g/g). The highest ethanol yield per starch of 0.36 g/g, which equals to 64% of the theoretical value, was obtained for peas. From the overall analysis, the examined thermo-acid pretreatment was the most efficient for hydrolysis of wheat bread, while it was least efficient for green beans. In order to enhance the efficiency of conversion of starch from kitchen waste into ethanol, pH lower than 1 is highly recommended. The results demonstrated the potential of different food waste as a promising biomass resource for the production of ethanol.

    Keywords:bioethanol; kitchen waste, thermo-acid pretreatment

  • László Gogolák ,
    Igor Fürstner ,
    Szilveszter Pletl :

    The use of wireless devices has greatly increased in the last decade, and it has been one of the most widely used medium of information transmission. Within the wireless devices the wireless sensor networks are the most contemporary and most commonly researched field. The work deals with the industrial use of wireless sensor networks and more precisely with monitoring and controlling industrial assembly lines. The focus of this study is localization by the use of wireless technology in the above mentioned environment. In the experiment wireless sensors are placed on the base elements of currently being assembled products. The developed system is able to specify the precise place of the product in the assembly line and record the time of localization. By the use these information the time of assembling the product can be monitored. For determining the place of the product the Received signal strength indication – RSSI has been used. The current position of the product is calculated by a neural network. The use of these sensors makes possible the measuring and recording of the influences on the product during the assembly, such as the effects of temperature, humidity, or if the product has been hit or damaged. By the use of these wireless sensor networks the quality of the assembled products can be improved and the process of assembly can be optimized.

    Keywords:Fingerprint location, WSN, Received Signal Strength, Mobile sensor