Soil data collection, mapping and interpretation - Articles
Abstract: The traditional genetic-based Hungarian Soil Classification System (HSCS) was elaborated during the 1960s. The concept and the units were developed before sufficient data and modern data processing tools became available. The 39 soil types were defined as group of soils developed under similar soil forming factors and processes, resulting in similar morphogenetic properties. The allocation of soils in the system included some subjective elements, even with substantial knowledge and experience of the classifier. The modernized “diagnostic” system was developed based on the accumulated data and experiences with the genetic system as well on the application of new pedometric tools. The definitions and limits of the diagnostic categories (horizons and properties) correspond with the World reference base for soil resources (WRB), but are not identical, they are much simpler, and adopted for the environmental setting of the Carpathian Basin. The 15 soil types (central units) are defined by the newly introduced classification key, based on diagnostic criteria, assuring a more objective result of the classification process. This paper is presenting the rational of the diagnostic system, gives a summary description of the 15 new soil types and discusses the successful correlation with the (WRB).
Keywords: soil classification, genetic approach, diagnostic approach, World Reference Base for soil resources (WRB), correlation
Abstract: GROW Observatory is a project funded under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program. Its aim is to establish a large scale (more than 20,000 participants), resilient and integrated ‘Citizen Observatory’ (CO) and community for environmental monitoring that is self-sustaining beyond the life of the project. This article describes how the initial framework and tools were developed to evolve, bring together and train such a community; raising interest, engaging participants, and educating to support reliable observations, measurements and documentation, and considerations with a special focus on the reliability of the resulting dataset for scientific purposes. The scientific purposes of GROW observatory are to test the data quality and the spatial representativity of a citizen engagement driven spatial distribution as reliably inputs for soil moisture monitoring and to create timely series of gridded soil moisture products based on citizens’ observations using low cost soil moisture (SM) sensors, and to provide an extensive dataset of in situ soil moisture observations which can serve as a reference to validate satellite-based SM products and support the Copernicus in situ component. This article aims to showcase the initial steps of setting up such a monitoring network that has been reached at the mid-way point of the project’s funded period, focusing mainly on the design and development of the CO monitoring network.
Keywords: citizen science, citizen observatory, crowdsourced data, soil moisture monitoring
Abstract: Optimal water supply of plants is key to high yields. However, irrigation in drier regions must be accompanied by soil conservation. Nationwide planning of irrigation needs spatially exhaustive, functional soil maps, which may support proper recommendations for the different areas. For supporting the Hungarian national irrigation strategy, a series of countrywide functional soil maps was created, which reveal the pedological constraints, conditions and circumstances of irrigation by the spatial modelling of the relevant functional features of the soil mantle. Irrigation can improve productivity, while its negative effects may lead to soil degradation. This paper focuses on threats, the spatial identification of potentially affected areas. The thematic maps spatially model the irrigability and vulnerability of soils. Estimation of salt accumulation hazard, and soil structure degradation risks were targeted. The salinization hazard assessment was carried out by two ways. We applied the steady state concept of critical water-table depth and a more dynamic, process-based method. To estimate soil structural degradation hazard, class-based relationships were developed based on soil profile data of MARTHA 1.0 (Hungarian Detailed Soil Hydraulic Database). Soil type, organic matter content, carbonate content, soil reaction and texture class (USDA) were taken into consideration to develop pedotransfer functions for modelling the correlations between primary soil properties and threats indicators. The new maps can help decision makers to improve land use management, and sustainable agronomy.
Keywords: functional soil map, irrigation, salt accumulation, soil structural degradation, Hungary
Abstract: Traditional soil maps present soil information in the form of categorical classes of soil types classified on the appropriate level of the applied classification system corresponding to the scale. Soil complexes and associations have been used to describe polygons. This kind of data structure is useful to characterise an area by explaining its soil resources. However, it is difficult to convert these complex categorical units into a simple digital variable, the usage of this kind of data in a digital environment is limited. Users often need single properties instead of the complex classes. Additionally, the problem becomes more complicated when soil information of different origin, based on different classification systems has to be integrated into a common, harmonised database. The presented methodology is part of the efforts to develop a global SOTER (World Soil and Terrain database) coverage and contribute to the global soil observing s as part of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). The aim is to determine and map the relevant soil properties, horizons and materials following the diagnostic concepts of the World Reference Base (WRB) for soil resources and derive the occurrence probability of soil classes (WRB reference soil groups) of certain spots with the application of remote sensing and digital soil mapping tools. The developed method is referred as the e-SOTER approach and is capable of producing a stack of soil diagnostic element layers with the likelihood of their occurrence within each pixel and a layer of WRB reference soil groups (RSG). This new approach may provide better input for modellers and predict the spatial continuum of the soil cover in a much better resolution than the traditional polygon based approaches. At the same time the diagnostic elements, as building blocks of the classification systems, help the correlation of the national soil classes into integrated databases and maps.
Keywords: soil types and classification systems, soil classification methodology, World Soil and Terrain database, global soil observing, WRB reference soil groups
Abstract: The concept of agroecosystem services combines environmental and socio-economic approaches to the analysis and evaluation of natural capital. A multi-criteria approach to spatial quantification of ecosystem services allows explicit assessment of the potential of agroecosystems to provide agroecosystem services and to adapt the land management under regional conditions. For the spatial quantifying of agroecosystem services potential of agricultural land in Slovakia, we have created a mapping unit by combining four input layers (climatic region, slope topography, soil texture and land use). In ecosystems of agricultural land, regulation of water regime, control of soil erosion, climate regulation and soil filtration are the main regulating services. Filtering potential was calculated as accumulative function of soil sorption potential and potential of total content of inorganic pollutants evaluated according to The Slovak Soil Law. Calculated potential was categorised into five categories (very low, low, medium, high and very high). The distribution of the filtering potential using spatial mapping units show that in Slovakia more than 41 per cent of agroecosystems have very high filtering potential (for inorganic pollutants), mostly in the Bratislava, Nitra and Trnava regions. Ecosystems with low potential (more than 41 per cent of agricultural land) are predominantly located on Fluvisols (along Váh, Hron and Bodrog rivers) with a higher content of risk elements in alluvial sediments (caused by anthropogenic deposition). The mountain soils on grassland are also strongly involved in very low category of filtering potential, predominantly in the Banská Bystrica, ®ilina and Preąov regions. The greatest differences among regions was found in relation to climatic conditions, land use and the diversity of soil types.
Keywords: ecosystem services, soil pollutants, filtering potential, Slovakia, district, region
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