Abstract: The development and modification of the science, forming and establishment of rather new fields is a normal process, carried out dominantly by 2 ways: differentiation and integration. This phenomenon of development is typical also for food physics. As integration: food science and physics and as differentiation: within food science and within applied physics.
Keywords: Food physics
Abstract: Globally, milk is a commonly consumed food due to its high nutrient composition. Milk naturally contains a number of key nutrients, including protein, which is beneficial to humans regardless of their age. Proteins are macromolecules that play a crucial role in nutrition, growth and development. The percent of protein ranges from 3.0% to 3.6% in cow’s milk. There are several methods used for the determination of milk proteins in dairy products, such as qualitative methods, determination of total organic nitrogen by Kjeldahl technique, colorimetric principles, enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), electrophoresis, X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and chromatographic methods. Milk proteins can be detected more easily by analytical instruments compatible with liquid chromatography due to polar ligands. Reversed-phase HPLC technique has become an essential technique in determination of milk proteins and peptides in dairy products. Reversed-phase HPLC combined with mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful technique for milk protein analysis. It is possible to determine also the animal origin of milk by detecting milk proteins. Chromatography combined mass verification technique is the leading technique for determination of milk proteins in dairy products.
Keywords: Milk Proteins, Casein, Whey Proteins, Analytical Methods, Reversed-Phase HPLC
Abstract: Mixtures of proteins and dietary fiber are frequently used in many technological applications in food industry. In many of these applications’ protein-dietary fiber mixtures are used in the production of processed dispersions containing two or more immiscible phases such as aqueous, oil and/or gas phases in the forms of emulsions or foams. Due to their large interface areas, the dispersions are spontaneously unstable systems and prone to destabilization. The instability of these systems is achieved by a protective surface layer around the particles. The properties of this interface layer are controlled by the composition and structure of the adsorbed material. The aim of present study is to investigate the interfacial properties of protein- dietary fiber interactions at oil/water interfaces. For this reason, 1% solutions of casein, as a model compound, and mixed with the inulin, an important dietary fiber, have been prepared. The BiCone rotor has a diameter of 68 mm and a cone angle of 10̊ was used and the data were recorded at 25 ̊C. The rotational as well as oscillatory experiments were conducted and the interfacial shear stress (τi), interfacial viscosity (ηi) and interfacial modulus (Gi’, Gi’’) values were recorded. Water and oil interfacial properties of samples were evaluated in terms of time, stress, strain and frequency sweep measurements. The Gi’ values were higher than Gi’’ (Gi’> Gi’’) at studied frequency and the ηi was measured 1.616x10-3 Pas.m at the shear rate of 100.
Keywords: Interfacial, rheology, casein, dietary fiber
Abstract: Giant red shrimp ( Aristaeomorpha foliacea) is commercially valuable shrimp species found in Mediterranean Sea. During the shrimp processing, depending on the species, size, and shellingprocedure, about 40-50% of the raw material weight is discarded as nonedible parts and named asbyproduct. Byproduct of shrimp consist of meat, peels and other residues. These byproducts stillcontain valuable nutrients and functional compounds such as fatty acids, mineral salts, proteins, chitin, and pigments. The important human health benefits are associated with Omega-3 fatty acids particularly eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n:3). Recovering of bioactive compounds such as Omega-3 fatty acid rich oils has increased greatly during past few decades due to the its commercial value. The aim of this study was to recover of Omega-3 fatty acid rich shrimp oil from byproducts by applying of different biomass drying methods including fluidized bed drying method (FBD) and conventional oven drying method (ODS). The results showed that Omega-3 fatty acid content and health lipid indices (AI and TI) of shrimp byproducts were significantly (P 0.05) affected by biomass drying methods. Omega-3 fatty acid content of fluidized bed dried shrimp byproduct was significantly higher than conventional oven dried byproduct.
Keywords: Red shrimp, fatty acids, shrimp byproduct, fluidized bed drying
Abstract: Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves with the moisture content of 3.18 g water/g dry base were dried by convective hot air drying at 50, 60 and 70°C until the moisture content fell down to 0.15 g water/g dry base. Drying experiments were completed between 17 and 50 min. depending on drying temperatures. For the selection of the most suitable thin layer drying model, five mathematical models (Page, Modified Page, Logarithmic, Lewis, Henderson and Pabis) were applied to the drying treatments. The higher correlation coefficient (R2), and reduced root mean square error (RMSE), Chi square (χ2) were used to identify the excellence of fit model for drying of lemon balm leaves. As a result of the statistical tests, Page and Modified Page were considered to be the best models for 60 and 70°C hot air drying experiments when compared to the other models. In addition, Logarithmic model resulted in preferable statistical values than other thin layer models at 50°C. The color values such as L*, b*, C *ab and h° decreased, while a* value increased after drying. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff) values of dried lemon balm leaves increased with the rise of drying temperatures and ranged between 2.03×10-8 to 7.13×10-8 m2/s. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of dried lemon balm samples were both increased after drying. The total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity was obtained as the highest from 50°C treatment when compared with all cases.
Keywords: Lemon balm, hot air drying, mathematical modelling, color