I. Nyelv, nyelvészet, nyelvpedagógia
The KorSzak learner corpus, and a corpus analysis of the adjective ‘magyar’ denoting Hungarian nationality
Learner corpora can play an important role in second-language learning research. The available corpora and text analysis software allow us to systematically analyze large language samples of students to see how they learn a new language. The article presents the dynamic learner corpus of the Work Group for Corpus Linguistics and Didactics (KorSzak) and draws attention to some potential research areas based on the corpus. It presents a possible study, namely the most frequent noun collocational partners related to the adjective ‘magyar’ (Hungarian) denoting Hungarian nationality.
Introduction to the linguistic study of the Carpathian Basin language region
The present study is a chapter of a book in process. It is based on the fundamental premise that conflicts between Central and Eastern European countries and their minorities often appear in the framework of language policy, language planning and language ideology. In order to understand this, it is useful to carry out region-specific descriptive reviews of certain fields within Linguistics. These fields will, in turn, provide the disciplinary basis for exploring the causes of conflict. It is not possible to aim for fully comprehensive coverage, as this would require all areas of linguistic research to be presented. Those interested in further fields, such as Linguistic History or Semiotics, can refer to encyclopedias and individual reference books. This study briefly reviews those areas of linguistics that can be used to compare several languages, cover their role in the field and provide a sufficiently comprehensive linguistic knowledge to understand the basic linguistic relationships in the area. The first group is an overview of Linguistic Typology and Areal Linguistics – and the rather controversial but historically interesting 'linguistic confederation' based on these two. This is followed by a summary of Contactology and the bilingualism and multilingualism that characterize the region, with a focus on language policy aspects.
Paths to research on motivation in foreign language learning: motivation as a complex dynamic system
Psychological processes in language learning have been in the focus of inquiry for a long time. Over the past six decades, there has been a steady interest in the nature and role of one the major determinants of these processes: motivation. This has, on the one hand, resulted in a wide array of various educational and pedagogical methods, tools and strategies; and, on the other hand, it has called forth a great number of different interpretational frameworks for the concept. Within the field of Hungarian as a foreign language (HFL) teaching and learning, mostly the traditional dichotomic theory of extrinsic–intrinsic motivation has been used, although many more detailed theories have been developed recently, which are better in line with educational psychological research and the actual classroom learning situation. After a brief overview of the main theories and models of motivation over the three major periods of motivation research history, the paper presents a model where language learning motivation is understood to operate analogously to complex dynamic systems: it is in constant motion, and it is a complex interplay of various factors such as context, the individual, and processes of language learning. The aim of the article is not only to introduce this recent and practice-relevant construct of motivation to the field of HFL and urge research in HFL within this framework, but also to call attention to some methodological issues in related research.
On the development of metaphoric competence (Potentials in metaphors of space)
This paper argues for the importance of developing the metaphoric competence of language learners, emphasizing that such endeavors must be integrated into classroom practices from the early stages of teaching. The paper presents, as possible sample implementation plans, potential ways to teach with this in mind two of the linguistic means that serve to represent spatial relations in Hungarian: the metaphors of CONTAINER (linked to the inessive ending) and those of PATH/SURFACE (originating in the superessive case), for the A1 and A2 levels. The paper demonstrates how these metaphors engage – as a network – in the temporal location of events, in the creation of verbal meaning, including that of verbs with a verbal particle, and in the semantic-syntactic formation of verbal argument structure.
On the use of the MagyarOK open pedagogical corpus
The article presents the open pedagogical corpus called MagyarOK A1–B2, which was built for the Hungarian as a Second Language coursebook series with the same title, to enhance the teaching and learning of the language by providing (semi-)authentic texts so that users can study the actual language use of native speakers in specific communicative contexts and situations, and to provide language patterns and models which learners can integrate into their own linguistic output. The paper first gives a brief overview of the general criteria for pedagogical corpora and presents the contents of the corpus MagyarOK, then it proposes tasks for data-driven learning based on the corpus. It is suggested, on the one hand, that data-driven tasks can contribute in several ways to language acquisition through noticing, analyzing, and awareness-raising. On the other hand, active interaction with the corpus material can help learners memorize various language patterns.
II. Hungarológia oktatása
Ethnography and folklore in the Hungarian as a second language classroom
The paper discusses how ethnography and folklore can be implemented in the teaching of Hungarian language and culture for non-native speakers of Hungarian. After the investigation of the relationship between ethnography, folklore, culture and language teaching, the paper presents how various aspects of Hungarian ethnography and folklore are taught to Ukrainian students of Hungarian at the Velyhi Berehy Folklore Museum, in the Podkarpackie region of Ukraine. The paper offers museum pedagogy tools and methods (e.g., physicality, narrativity, materiality), as well as samples of worksheets related to specific museum pedagogy sessions, which can also be applied in the Hungarian as a foreign language classroom.
Ethnographic contents and folklore elements in Hungarian as a second language teaching resources
The implementation of various topics and elements of Hungarian ethnography and folklore in the teaching of Hungarian as a foreign language (HFL) can not only be useful in the teaching of language (e.g., pronunciation, vocabulary, or even grammar) and in the mediation of culture (e.g., cultural awareness), but it can also help to develop a positive attitude towards the Hungarian language and culture in learners, and it can also enhance their learning motivation. Through an analysis of a wide range of teaching resources used in HFL today, the paper discusses what ethnographic contents and folklore elements are, can be, and should be taught – and how – to various students of Hungarian as a foreign language today.
III. Műhelyek, színterek, taneszközök
The Pont HU working group for Hungarian as a foreign language
Pont HU, the working group for methodology and language pedagogy in Hungarian as a foreign language (HFL) was formed in 2017 with the intention to provide an open-access academic platform, and a both personal and virtual public space for teachers, researchers, and students involved in HFL research and teaching. In this paper, the founders of Pont HU present the activities organized by the working group over the past five years of their history: teachers’ forums, training courses, and content creation. All these activities work toward a common goal; namely, to promote, in a practice-oriented fashion, the implementation and application of novel academic findings in everyday teaching practices by providing opportunities for the HFL teaching community – across generations and education arenas – to meet with each other, discuss various issues related to the field, share their knowledge and experiences, exchange their ideas and opinions, and learn from each other.
The MagyarOK Hungarian Language Preparatory Program at the International Studies Center of the University of Pécs
Within the special field of language teaching for international students in the form of university language preparatory programs, the study presents and describes in detail the MagyarOK Hungarian Language Preparatory Program at the International Studies Center of the University of Pécs. After a short theoretical and historical survey of preparatory language courses, specific structural and methodological aspects of the afore mentioned program are discussed including, among others, the curriculum, the practical ways of teaching and testing, as well as teaching language for academic purposes. The paper also places strong emphasis on the cultural aspects of teaching Hungarian as a foreign language, and on methodological questions of cultural mediation.
Magyar felfedező – a work in progress Hungarian language teaching material for children
Magyar felfedező [Hungarian Explorer], presented in this paper, is a corpus-informed, model- and project-based Hungarian as a second language (HSL) teaching material, whose main purpose is to allow young learners to discover the natural language use of similar aged children living in Hungary today. Magyar felfedező is a unique venture in that it is the first complex HSL teaching material that focuses specifically on 11–14-year-olds and leads students from level A1 to level C1. The paper discusses how Magyar felfedező aims to facilitate the learning motivation of this group by selecting relevant topics for them and by adapting special teaching methods to suit their needs and expectations.
IV. Tankönyvek a változó világban
A 19th century textbook for Hungarian as a second language: Imre Szalay’s Magyar nyelvtudománya: rövid oktatásokban a' kezdő tanúlók' számára (1833, 5th edition)
During the national movements in 19th century Europe, the study and teaching of vernacular languages gained increasing interest. This paper presents and analyzes a lesser-known grammar book written in the era, for the teaching and learning of Hungarian as a foreign language: Imre Szalay’s Magyar nyelvtudománya: rövid oktatásokban a 'kezdő tanúlók' számára (1833, 5th edition).
A Hungarian coursebook for Persian speakers: Xod-âmuzi-ye zabân-e majâri
The present paper introduces and analyzes a recently published (2017) Hungarian language-book for Persian speakers. Although it should be of major importance that a book written for such a special audience is published, unfortunately it leaves us disappointed on account of the methodological problems, grammatical inaccurancies and factual errors negotiated and illustrated in the review.
Hungarian for specific purposes: Agricultural science
This paper discusses the historical and contemporary aspects of the teaching of Hungarian as a foreign language for specific purposes, namely for agricultural sciences. In the 1970s, not only general grammar books and textbooks were prepared for international university students, but coursebooks for academic purposes were also published for those university students who continued studying Hungarian after the general preparatory year, within their chosen field. The teaching of the agricultural, pedagogical, and medical language was essential for foreign students to successfully take part in their university programmes. Through the introduction of a 1971 coursebook written for students of agricultural sciences, this paper assesses the situation of teaching Hungarian for agricultural purposes before the change of the political system in Hungary, and today.
Interview with a Moldavian-Hungarian
This is an interview I conducted with my mother, who – as a native speaker of Moldavian – started learning Hungarian in 1993-94, at the age of 21-22, after she married my father (a native speaker of Hungarian) in Moldavia, and they moved to Hungary. Today, she is a highly proficient speaker of Hungarian. In the interview, I asked my mother about her attitude towards and her opinion about the Hungarian language, as well as about her language learning experience in general. The interview provides insight into some interesting individual learner perspectives which make each case of language learning unique and interesting in their own rights. The paper was originally prepared as an assignment for a university course I attended as an MA student of Hungarian Studies at the University of Pécs.