The humor of stork jokes
This paper discusses the nature and mode of implementation of humor in stork jokes represented in Hungarian under the conditions of Hungarian culture. The vital role of scenic, frame-based and scriptal knowledge, perceptual and cognitive salience, as well as of folklore-based encyclopedic information in the production and comprehension of this type of animal jokes are analyzed. In the second part of the paper the strategic representation as well as factors influencing the textual, cohesive and coherent mode of expression as well as comprehension of three sample jokes taken from a corpus of 30 stork jokes are analyzed in brief, pointing to the factors and mode of their emotive load which contributes to the effectivity of the stylistic representation of their humor.
Teaching Hungarian as foreign language online – Teaching Hungarian pronunciation online (didactic issues)
This study discusses general questions about the methodology of teaching Hungarian as a foreign language online and presents in detail how to teach Hungarian pronunciation on online learning platforms. It lists the possible difficulties and challenges of this educational task and suggests good practices and ideas, in an encouragement for teachers to tackle the task of leading their students to the mastery of functional Hungarian pronunciation in digital education.
Introduction of the Work Group for Corpus Linguistics and Didactics (KorSzak)
The Work Group for Corpus Linguistics and Didactics (KorSzak) was created in February 2020 The group aims at building bridges between the domain of corpus linguistics and the methology of teaching Hungarian as a foreign or second language. The four sub-groups have collected and categorised a great amount of material in the past few months. One group has been working on designing and building fully authentic and semi-authentic corpora, another on collecting children’s language, and yet another on compiling a learner corpus of written and spoken lingustic products. The creation of pedagogic materials based on corpus analysis has also begun. KorSzak intends to build large pedagogic corpora that can be used by linguists for research purposes and by practitioners in their daily work. The teaching materials will offer concrete examples of how language teaching can be made more effective with the help of corpora.
The curious case of the Hungarian complex causative suffix -AttAt
Like all Uralic languages, Hungarian has a rich derivational and inflectional morphological system. In Hungarian, factitive causation is expressed in a fully regular way by the productive causative suffix -(t)At: -at, - et, -tat, -tet. Multiple causation can be expressed compositionally, i.e., by the iteration of this suffix. However, in today’s language use, -(t)At often alternates with the complex (iterated) -AttAt: -attat, -ettet suffix, to express simple causation. The paper discusses the morphological and syntactical context of the two variants, with an emphasis on -AttAt, and it examines its semantics in relation to simple and multiple causation. The early history of the two causative suffix variants is also considered, with special regard to their interaction with the passive suffix -(t)Atik. The paper demonstrates that although the Hungarian language has the means to distinguish between simple and multiple causation, and although language purists today condemn the “unnecessary” use of - AttAt, speakers did and do use this complex causative suffix to express simple factitive causation. Finally, the paper postulates the following motivating factors for this alternation: analogy with similar constructions (various multiple causatives and the passive), and fortition (iteration of the causative suffix without a change in meaning). In Hungarian, the -AttAt ending is used to express both simple and multiple causation, thus, it may be viewed as a case where the system of compositionality is overridden for usage-based reasons.
Interpretational alternatives for attributive structures belonging to Hungarian deverbal nouns
The paper discusses how different meanings can be associated with attributive structures that belong to deverbal nominals in Hungarian. The semantic ambiguity of deverbal nominals lies with their hybrid status: they are partly verbal and partly nominal. Parallel with this Janus-facedness, the semantic contribution of their attributive constructions (and that of their possessors, if any) may rely on either the ‘input’ verbal character or the ‘output’ nominal character. In our transformational (phase-theorist minimalist) generative syntactic framework, we account for the ‘verbal character’ by assuming that certain deverbal nominal constructions (e.g., the complexevent denoting subtype) have syntactic structures that factually contain (more or less “fully-fledged”) highly complex verb phrases. As for ‘nominal-based’ meaning contributions, we account for the observed ambiguity by assuming polysemous mental networks, formally represented as directed graphs.
The terminology of higher education – reference works and databases
Our paper aims to examine the choice of reference works in the field of educational terminology. In this study, we examine the organizational and educational environment of educational terminology in Hungary and the European Union, as well as the relevant glossaries, dictionaries, and databases currently available, and the languages, in which they contain educational terms. We conclude that Hungarian terms of educational terminology are included only in Hungarian-related glossaries and dictionaries.
Following Sivirsky – Additions to Dutch−Hungarian cultural relations
Antal Sivirsky was a literary historian, a translator, and a teacher of the Dutch language. He was of Hungarian, but he spent his adult life in the Netherlands. He promoted Hungarian−Dutch cultural relations. This study explores the appearance and reception of Hungarian culture in the Netherlands from the 19th century through Sivirsky’s works.
Comments on Hungarian–German comparative research with special emphasis on word order and valency
This paper focuses on the typological and sociocultural aspects of Hungarian–German comparative linguistics. The key question is the following: Why is there a relatively easy transition between German and Hungarian despite the genetic differences between the two languages? The paper focuses on the following topics: 1. Hungarian–German relations in terms of vocabulary; 2. Excerpts from the history of Hungarian–German language teaching; 3. Structural-typological similarities from a cognitive point of view.
The thorny path of LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphors; what error analysis reveals about the acquisition of metaphoric expressions in a foreign language
In the present paper my aim was to glimpse into the acquisition of LIFE IS A JOURNEY metaphors in the case of Japanese learners of Hungarian as a foreign language. In the first phase of the research, six linguistic metaphors related to the conceptual metaphor of LIFE IS A JOURNEY was introduced to the target group (B1-B2 level learners). In the second phase, the learners were asked to produce a written text about a fictitious life story, in 220-250 words, using the six linguistic metaphors. The texts were then subjected to error analysis regarding the use of the metaphors. The analysis revealed that the learners had difficulty using the metaphors both as regards their grammatical and their conceptual behavior. The results suggest that learners need extensive reinforcement to understand how metaphoric expressions fit into the target language grammatical system and also on the semantic-pragmatic contexts that they may appear in.
Missing mosaic in the teacher training of Hungarian as a foreign language teachers’ education: Who will teach the young children?
Since 1982, several changes have occurred in the training program of Hungarian as a foreign language teachers. However, there is still a missing aspect in the selection of the programs offered in academic education: day-care, kindergarten, and primary school teacher trainees have no opportunity to access the HFL teacher training programs and acquire the profession. In 2009, a course named Methodology of Teaching Hungarian as a Foreign Language as well as an extended program called Hungarian Language for Foreign Children specialization were introduced at Kaposvár University, in an effort to provide for this missing piece. In this paper, a specific part of a never published research is introduced which proves that the teacher trainees of the lower education need at least a minimum knowledge of Hungarian language teaching methodology. Furthermore, detailed information is provided on the contents, the theoretical bases, the practical accomplishment and the success of these programs.
An investigation of cognitive metaphorization using corpus linguistic methods, and its implications for language teaching
In our paper, we examine the metaphorization of place expressions in terms of cognitive linguistics. The study is carried out on a corpus of texts related to rock music as they appear in different social media. The subcorpora are composed of non-inflectional nominative and inessive, illative, and elative inflectional linguistic material – inflections -bAn, -bA, and -bÓl in various types of syntactic constructions. The data are analyzed by using corpus linguistic methods. The pedagogical implications of the results of this study are also addressed as regards the teaching of Hungarian as a mother tongue and as a foreign language.
A glimpse into the digital transformation of the teaching methodology of Hungarian as a foreign language: didacticized videos in model-based teaching
With online language teaching becoming widespread, we are also faced with a shift in teaching methods. Digital education requires novel teaching techniques, presupposing at least basic but preferably optimal digital competencies, and it requires adjusted teaching and learning strategies. This study identifies differences and similarities between face-to-face and online learning and teaching contexts. It draws attention to the fact that the purpose of language teaching remains unchanged, while it also discusses how preparation before language lessons becomes even more significant together with student–teacher cooperation. There is much more happening than the mere transformation of the educational forum. By examining online teaching methods, the paper discusses how the use of educational video corpora like that of MagyarOK gains new emphasis in the language teaching process.
Bilungualism and multilingualism in Hungarian public education
Social, cultural and linguistic diversity is present in every society and thus, it is organized dynamically along the prevailing interests of the various groups. The analysis of the relation between language and society, and that between forms of language use and social structures underlying social existence can not by-pass the discussion about language and education and, within that scope, bi- and multilingualism in schooling. Based on this fact, the present paper discusses the language education in public schools and in international schools in Hungary, with special focus on the teaching of Hungarian as a foreign language.
A course book from the Reform Era – Ágoston Imre Széchy: Elementary Hungarian grammar practically presented, 1840
This paper is a review of a 19th century grammar book, indicated in the title. After presenting the biography of the author and outlining the motivating factors for the writing of the book, the paper gives a detailed description of the structure, methodology and innovations of this unique grammar book. It is argued that with its novel solutions (theoretical basis in linguistic logic, indirect method, the central role of the verb, well-planned and practical structuring), Széchy’s Elementary Hungarian stands out from among other grammars written in the 1840s.
Zu meinem Geburtstag – József Attilas Gedicht in zwei deutschen Übersetzungen
Mir zum Geburtstag ist eines der bekanntesten und beliebtesten Gedichte von Attila József. Das Gedicht ist eine Selbstgratulation, ein Geschenk von sich selbst zum zweiunddreißigsten Geburtstag. Zu diesem besonderen Anlass wählt der Dichter eine außergewönhliche Versform, die von Fenyő D. (2011) als eine der besondersten und eigenartisgten Formen der ungarischen Lyrik charakterisiert wird. Da diese Form bei den ungarischen zeitgenössischen Lyrikern immer populärer wird, könnte die „Geburtstags-Strophe“ sogar als Hungarikum betrachtet werden. Die deutschen Übersetzungen müssen also nicht nur die förmliche Genialität des Gedichtes in Betracht ziehen, sondern auch seine Einbettung in die lyrische Tradition. In der vorliegenden Analyse werden zwei deutsche Übersetzungen des Gedichtes verglichen, besonders im Hinblick auf den Rhytmus und auf die sprachlichen Bilder. Die eine Überserzung ist von Günther Deicke, von dem berühmten Dichter und Publizist der DDR. Deickes Nachdichtungen erschienen in einem Band aus dem Jahre 1960, welcher József Attila als proletarischen Dichter darstellte. Deicke arbeitete anhand von Interlinearübersetzungen. Der andere Übersetzer ist der ungarische Dichter Csaba Báthori, der unter dem Pseudonym Daniel Muth die meisten Werke von Attila József ins Deutsche übersetzt hat, mit dem Ziel, die Modernität seiner Lyrik für das deutsche Publikum bekannt zu machen. Die Analyse ergab, dass die Virtuosität der Rhythmik beziehungsweise Melodie und die spielerischen Reime in beiden Übersetzungen widergespiegelt werden, die Konnotationen der Bedeutungen werden aber bei Báthori genauer übersetzt. Allein in der vierten Strophe weicht er von der Stimmung des Originalen ab, wo er mit den expressiven Bildern der Armut auch auf die Tiefe des Gedichtes hinweisen kann.
Additions to the similarities and differences between the Hungarian and German systems of aspects and verbal prefixes, with special regard to verbs with the el- prefix
The study, on the one hand, discusses the shared attributes of expressing situational or lexical aspects in the Hungarian and German language, i.e. the fact that in both languages the verbal prefixes are tools for verb formation and, simultaneously but to a different extent, for telic formation of accomplishment and achievement. On the other hand, it aims to explain the causes of divergence between el- and its German equivalents. The study establishes the schematic semantic field of el- as the primary factor in this difference, which enables its widerange attaching ability to verb stems with various meanings, while the meaning of distancing in German manifests itself in many different prefixes, depending on the modes of action and that of distancing itself. The study establishes that metaphorizing processes play a fundamental role in the differences of how the verbal prefixes are used in these two languages. The paper also distinguishes two categories within these processes: unique metaphors and metaphors connected to the given verb stem on a systematic level.
Corpus building and the use of corpora at lower levels of language learning
The use of linguistic corpora is not a common practice in the teaching of Hungarian as a foreign language. Although the use of these large text collections has a number of benefits of which the present article can present only a few, teachers or students are often reluctant to consult them. The principal reason for this seems to be that most existing corpora were built with the expectations and aims of linguists and researchers in mind. This article argues that corpora can only be relevant and effective for language teaching purposes when they are built in accordance with the learners’ needs. An example of pedagogical databases is the MagyarOK corpus for Hungarian, available among the public corpora on the Sketch Engine website. In the second half of the article, the content of this corpus and the methodological considerations behind its construction are briefly described.
Discourse markers here and there
The goal of this paper is to analyze to what extent and to what ends people use discourse markers in chat language in Hungarian. Since it builds on a small-scale research, the present paper serves to raise questions and provide insights – rather than giving final answers. Drawing on the findings of this small-scale study, the most important proposal of the paper is that discourse marker research should not only turn to speech for research material but also to written language – providing that it is conversational and lengthier (than computer-mediated chats), so that there is enough time at the disposal of the interlocutors to fine-tune their conversational messages.
Apologizing, refusing, and thanking in Hungarian and Japanese: Different languages and different strategies
Every language has a certain set of strategies for performing a given speech act, such as apologizing, refusing requests, or thanking invitations. The expressions used for performing a certain speech act may differ from language to language, since they are determined by the structure of social or cultural situations. This paper shows how the speech acts of apology, refusal and gratitude are realized in Japanese and Hungarian. Although the speakers of both languages share similar strategies, there are also differences depending on the social and cultural structure. This means that for foreign language learners it is significant and necessary to be acquainted with the interactive and sociocultural rules underlying language usage in the target society and culture.
Énekeltetek, énekeltétek? (Did you sing? Did you sing it?)
This short article is a deliberation on the semantically meaningful difference between two Hungarian sounds: e [ε] and é [e:]. In the process of first language acquisition which is inseparable from cognition and meaning development, children easily learn the meaningful difference between the two sounds which in Hungarian palatal verbal endings serve to distinguish between verbal inflectional patterns for known and unknown objects. However, the same task is a major challenge for learners of Hungarian as a foreign language. Only after they cross the threshold of being able to accurately perceive and articulate these sounds can they begin to process instances of definite–indefinite conjugation in Hungarian in meaningful contexts. It is argued that language pedagogy cannot bypass the socio-constructivist idea claiming that sounds provide the primary material for linguistic symbols which capture schematic grammatical, situational meanings in any natural language.
III. Személyes köszönetnyilvántartások
Bearing witness to the field of Hungarian as a foreign language and Hungarian Studies – The first twenty-one volumes of Hungarológiai Évkönyv (The Yearbook of Hungarian Studies)
The Yearbook of Hungarian Studies (Hungarológiai Évkönyv) has served the two causes of teaching Hungarian as a foreign language and researching Hungarian Studies as a high-quality scientific journal. This rewarding work has been taking place at the University of Pécs for twenty years now. The double milestones of having published our Yearbook for two decades as well as the retirement of our editor-in-chief Tibor Szűcs presented an outstanding opportunity for reflection. In a bibliographical format, I reviewed how the original plans from 2000 translated into reality. The number of publications and key words suggests that the Évkönyv (Yearbook) has been useful for many researchers. Not only has it supported the experts of Hungarology, but also the scholars of native and foreign language cultures. To this date, we published almost 400 pieces. Most of the said pieces are studies that proved to be of such high quality that several language and culture scholars reference them often in various fields.