I. A magyar mint idegen nyelv
“The Hungarian language in the Italian (Sicilian) mouth”
In the course of teaching the Hungarian language to native speakers of Italian, a series of difficulties appears, attributed – among other factors – to the differences in grammar, pronunciation, and also orthography between the two languages. As for grammar, the speaker of an inflected language (Italian) is obliged to change to an agglutinative system (Hungarian), where the different suffixes added to the base word bear grammatical relations. This paper focusses on issues in phonetics and orthography, by presenting a didactic experience of a beginner’s level Hungarian language course that took place in Palermo (Italy), with the participation of twelve Italian students. The paper describes the learners’ linguistic development, with a focus on the alphabetical and the phonological system. The description of the learners’ language and the comparison of the two languages in the afore-mentioned respect serves the purpose of identifying the greatest challenges for Italian learners of Hungarian in pronunciation and spelling.
Formulaic expressions in adult language learning – expectations and data
Despite the scarcity of empirical data, it is common belief that as an essential part of their language development, second and foreign language learners must acquire a rich repertoire of various expressions conventionally used by target language communities. In addition, language teaching methodologies and classroom practices again and again turn to the teaching of frequent and/or useful expressions as ready-made chunks. The international research on (mostly English) formulaic language has had a relatively long past, and the field of Hungarian as a foreign language has also shown interest in formulaic expressions recently. Nevertheless, we have little data on what sequences should be taught to which students when and in what amounts, not to mention how the different expressions should be taught and why so. In the present paper, I first describe the changes in the field of Hungarian as a foreign language since the turn of the century that have by now led to a favorable theoretical background for the linguistic and pedagogical research of formulaic expressions in Hungarian. Then, I summarize the various common beliefs and expectations that have inspired, and still inspire, those working in second and foreign language teaching to try and apply the theories of rule-based and/or patternbased learning in the context of language teaching. I also present how recent research findings make it necessary to reconsider some of the earlier expectations. I conclude the paper with recommendations and insights that I find important to consider in the light of the findings, for the successful teaching of formulaic expressions in Hungarian as a foreign language.
The use of historical linguistic knowledge in the teaching of Hungarian as a Foreign Language
This paper presents a selection of historical explanations for several exceptional or irregular features of Hungarian that can be used in the teaching of Hungarian as a foreign language. It also discusses how explanations offered by historical lexicology and idiomology can invigorate the learning process of lexical items. Naturally, these additions are not to replace but to supplement other explanations such as those offered by contrastive linguistics.
Arguments and selection (On the functional analysis of arguments in Hungarian)
This paper discusses the difference between verb complement types. It is argued that verb complements are an issue that form-oriented approaches can no longer tackle, therefore, language-use based approaches have to be called for. Since the borderlines between arguments, valencies and semantic complements are rather fuzzy, the strict categories created by linguists in this respect can never be constant. Changes on the semantic/lexical level are driven by metaphorization, the major tool of which is grammaticalization on the structural level. The paper proposes that word order can be used to mark categorical changes.
How to teach Hungarian – to children?
“To achieve success in language teaching, it is necessary to know what we do and why we do it” (Hegyi 1991). In other words, it is essential to have a methodology for language teaching, including Hungarian as a Second/Foreign Language. The field of teaching Hungarian to children is especially lacking in methodological resources. In this paper, several aspects of a future methodology are discussed. The external and the internal components of the teaching and learning process are presented in their full complexity. As regards content, several methods and techniques to teach Hungarian sounds and letters are presented, and a dialogue-based method is proposed for the teaching of Hungarian lexical and grammatical elements, within the context of teaching Hungarian to children.
“With heart and soul.” A Hungarian–Croatian somatic phraseological dictionary (published in Zagreb, 2017)
The book is a result of a students’ project lead by the lector of the Hungarian language at the Faculty of Humanities, University of Zagreb. The students involved in the project were Antonija Jelavić, Darija Klinac, Eva Hoyt-Nikolić, and Nikola Kušćer. Up until this volume, no phraseological dictionary had been published on either side, therefore, the most important role of the present publication is to portray the most frequently used somatic expressions in Hungarian and in Croatian. In the total of the 158 pages, 46 sections of the body are distinguished in 850 phraseological units. The dictionary is primarily intended for students of the Croatian and of the Hungarian language, as well as for translators and interpreters; but those who simply wish to expand their vocabulary can also find it useful. With heart and soul is a significant contribution to both Croatian and Hungarian phraseology and lexicography.
“Pepper is small but strong.” The audit of the ECL examination in Hungarian by ALTE
The article is aimed at providing an outline of the audit process of the ECL Hungarian language exam carried out by the Association of Language Testers in Europe (ALTE). The ECL Hungarian exam following the audit process was awarded full membership in ALTE and a Quality Mark in 2017.