“I think it so, because it is in German the same” Points of discrimination and affordances: a case study in contrastive linguistics
Examining the functioning of the Mental Lexicon is a common object of Second (and Third) Language Acquisition as well as of Multilingualism Research. Despite the enormous number of empirical studies trying to map mental processes connected to multilingual language perception, there are many blank areas. Aiming at a better understanding of multilingual competence, the presented pilot study focuses on the cognitive-contrastive strategies applied by multilingual speakers while being confronted with the task of understanding lexical units in a previously unknown language. In the qualitative study conducted with the think-aloud-protocol method, successive multilingual participants (L1 Hungarian, L2 German and L3 English) were asked to solve intercomprehension tasks serving as data collecting instruments. Based on their reports I tried to map tendencies which may show how multilinguals unconsciously search for points of discrimination and react to linguistic affordances being offered by a typologically different language (target language: Italian).
Orthography. Does it have count?
The orthographic competence is one of the constituyent parts of the writing skills. The knowledge of the written code and the orthograhpy of the language has a fundamental role in the correct transmitting of written messages. The proper spelling of words and letters and the use of orthographic symbols help the exchange of information. This empirical study carried out on Egyptian Arabic native speaker students who study Hungarian as a foreign language shows that in the case of students the most characteristic orthographical mistakes are the rules of the writing of capital and lowercase letters, the distinction between voiced and breathed vowels, the fals identification of the Hungarian vowels and the incorrect articulation of the lexicon.
A corpus linguistic analysis of linguistic nationalism and fetishism in Hungarian and English language blog posts
In my paper I aimed to analyze in the Hungarian blogosphere the myth which claims that Hungarian is a difficult language. To this end, I collected 15 Hungarian and 15 English blog posts. I examined this corpus of texts from the perspective of linguistic nationalism and linguistic fetishism. In order to obtain better results I employed a mixed method, whereby I first performed a KWIC analysis and a collocation analysis with given keywords on the blog entries as well as on the database of the Hungarian National Corpus. This was followed by a qualitative analysis of content. During the analysis it emerged that the Hungarian subcorpus is richer in the area of linguistic nationalism than it first appeared to be during the quantitative examination. In the case of the English language subcorpus – given that non-native speakers wrote the blog posts – the positive bias towards the Hungarian language naturally could not be observed. The results indicate that the myth of Hungarian being “one of the hardest languages to master” is observable in 13 out of 15 English language posts.
Encoding of Spatial Reference in Hungarian and Italian Languages. A Comparative Typological Analysis
This crosslinguistic survey of spatial reference in language use is about the way Hungarian and Italian languages structure the spatial domain. The purpose of the paper is twofold, one theoretical and the other practical. Linguistic typology has undergone serious crises lately as it has been proven that very few, if any, language universals exist, due to the extreme structural diversity of languages. We have to pursue then new ways of investigation taking into account an interdisciplinary approach. Language typology may complement and learn from linguistics of other persuasions which in turn may enhance theoretical well groundedness of language typology and broaden its research scope. I argue that opening toward cognitive linguistics, which has experienced a shift towards more empirically-based inquiry recently, may provide a potential for methodological cross-fertilization. From the perspective of applied linguistics the aim of this study is to approach the question of how and to what extent semantic typology, a new kind of work in linguistics which starts out from a functional base (essentially, how one answers ˮwhereˮ-questions), can be applied to teaching Hungarian and Italian as a second language.
II. Tudománytörténet: hungarológia Európában
An inside look at the Berlin Gragger Archive's Documents
I was awarded the Kuno von Klebelsberg scholarship with the aim of organizing and exploring the substantial collection of documents, which were overlooked for centuries, kept at the Department of Hungarian Literature and Culture of the Humboldt University. In particular, I planned to carry out the thorough analysis of the documents stored at the Workshop for Hungarian Studies, founded by Róbert Gragger. These materials contain the documents related to the establishment of the first Hungarian Department abroad, moreover, touch on the various steps, through which the institution developed. The materials stored in the staff room of the department in Berlin were initially arranged into fonds (1st-7th), however, no fonds register had been made up to then. The latter, I prepared eventually. Additionally, commemorating the founder and the department's forthcoming centenary I processed the documents of the first fond (those of Róbert Gragger): after I had created a topic-based system, I described the papers - touching on their contents and context - and prepared a bill of materials. My research reports provide a first, thorough look into the documents kept at the department for people interested in the subject.
III. Hungarológia és finnugrisztika
Approaches to metric analysis. Folk-poetry in Finno-Ugric languages
The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of the metrics of Mansi folk poetry. Mansi is Hungarian’s closest language relative therefore contrastive approach is an indispensable condition for the research: the Mansi text – among Finno-Ugric examples will be primarily compared to a Hungarian poem. The subject of metrics is based on linguistic regularity which has two major constituents: phonetic material within a certain syntactic frame. In this research I consider metrics as the linguistic analysis of texts which can be segmented along particular regularities. By this definition the poetic text is in the scope of metrics. The presented text analysis includes three sections: 1. the numerical examination of the phonological constituents in the syllables 2. analysis of the syntactic components 3. translation and comparison of the structure of the examined texts. This paper’s purpose is to answer the following questions: is it possible to apply the existing methods for Mansi folk poetry comparing with other Finno-Ugric examples, and if so how can we accomplish it. I believe that by exploring these methods, we can get acquainted with other less studied (Finno-Ugric) people’s folk-poetry.
On the status of the smaller Finno-Ugric and Hungarian dialects
The paper discusses the status of the smaller Finno-Ugric languages and/or dialects, then gives data for examining the attitudes on Hungarian dialects. Decisions on language politics and language planning have a special emphasis on Finno-Ugric languages; the functionally restricted use of language adds up to language attrition and at worst: language death, but a revitalising process can be set up, too. We don’t need to talk about „fossilization” in connection with Hungarian dialects, but due to negative attitudes (stigmatization) and therefore the decrease of pragmatic values the vision about extinction of dialects usually appears. Increasing language awareness on dialects, adopting positive attitudes (already during general education) should be a main point of either Hungarian or Finno- Ugric language planning, and online appearance can also make its positive effects on these dialects.
IV. Rövid közlemények
Time after Time – „What time is it?” Teaching of telling the time at the Hungarian as an Additional Language Lessons
This paper seeks for giving a short summary of the challenges a language lerner has to face with during the learning of how to tell the time in Hungarian. Eighteen students aged 11-15 were asked about the difficulties of learning the time expressions in Hungarian. I tried to collect the similarities and differencies among their mother tongues (Farsi, Mandarin, Turkish and Arabic) and Hungarian. Although, it is not a detailed analysis the problems appear clearly. Because of the growing number of language learners with the above mentioned first languages this topic requires a more detailed research.
“Suddenly, everything occured to her again.” Anna Édes between ,cseléd and ,család
In Dezső Kosztolányi’s work Édes Anna a servant girl, Anna, kills her masters without her reasons being explicitly known to the reader. A sentence from the work, however, Suddenly, everything occured to her again, indicates that Anna commits the deed because she has never had children. The novel provides evidence for this interpretation both within the plot as well as on a linguistic level.