I. Nyelvtan – Nyelvoktatás / Nyelvtanulás – Nyelvtudás
Verbs always and never with focus stress in the Hungarian sentence structure
The aim of this paper is to describe the main characteristics of two well-definable groups of Hungarian verbs: that is (a) verbs which always have strong stress in the sentence and can be in initial position in the sentence structure; (b) verbs which never have strong stress and require that a stressed nominal element be in focus position in front of them. In the article these groups of verbs are studied from the aspects of describing and teaching Hungarian as a foreign language. The author attempts to summarize the investigations that were carried out by scholars separately in this subject.
How does való fit in? Methodological tips for the attributive use of adverbials
In this paper the author discusses ways of teaching the word való, by which an adverbial may function as an attribute.
For example, the expression struggle for life in the agglutinative Hungarian language has almost the same structure as English: küzdelem a létért but this form is only used on its own as a title. Within a sentence the word order is changed and a special connective word (roughly ’being’) is inserted so that the sentence is free of breaks, ’a létért való küzdelem’. This makes the subordinate position of the adverbial to the noun clear and allows the noun to be in final position in the noun phrase.
The author examines official views, uncertainties and superstitions connected with the above mentioned role of való. She presents some useful methods, among them her own, that can be adopted in teaching Hungarian as a second language. This way, students will be enriched with some interesting pieces of information from the field of linguistic history as well.
What is most important, by learning how to use való they get an inside view of a particular characteristic of the way Hungarians think.
Morphologic and syntactic information in Hungarian learner’s dictionaries (Some aspects and experience of preparing a learner’s dictionary)
Knowing a vocabulary item includes knowing morphologic and syntactic information (inflected forms and syntactic behaviour) about it. This paper discusses aspects and factors taken into consideration throughout three stages of writing a printed or electronic dictionary: compiling grammatical information (corpora), selecting from the data what is relevant to the users and organizing / structuring the selected morphologic and syntactic information. The article illustrates with many examples and also addresses special problems and dilemmas arising in the case of some Hungarian linguistic phenomena. The discussion is based on literature as well as on experience gained when preparing a Hungarian learner’s dictionary for Somali speakers. The experience of a lexicographic work in the field of THL2 can be useful to any experts or teachers who might be willing to write a similar dictionary, responding to the apparently growing demand for modern learner’s dictionaries among learners of Hungarian as a foreign language.
The distribution of certain syntactic structures in compositions of Hungarian as a foreign language
The paper is an examination of how frequently candidates of ECL exam of Hungarian (as a foreign language) used the following structures in their guided compositions on level B1, B2 and C1: clauses introduced with hogy conjunction, defining relative clauses, participles with complements and constructions with való. The main aim of the empirical inquiry was to learn if these constructions are needed (and how frequently) by the language learner in their texts.
The analysis of the frequency data found in the samples showed a strong correlation between the level of the language knowledge and the high number of the structures in focus. As a conclusion these grammatical structures proved to be important vehicles in the arrangement of the propositional content (in condensing and expanding information) in written texts.
II. Tananyagok és módszerek
The challenges offered by Web 2.0 tools in the improvement of L2 students’ communication skills
This study aims to address the question of how Web 2.0 can be shaped along educational lines. Our analysis specifically focuses on what the educational potential of Web 2.0 can be as far as the improvement of L2 students’ communication skills are concerned, and on how education can be reimagined in the light of the new technologies.
The outcomes of a semester-long telecollaborative partnership between Italian university students studying Hungarian and Hungarian learners of Italian are considered. The operational protocol of the initiative called Danubadria was based on the reciprocal dependence and mutual support and was characterized by a task-based approach and a wiki counseling platform, in which the eTandem partners and their foreign language teachers collaborated.
Web 2.0 tools appear to strengthen fundamental aspects of L2 acquisition and of intercultural communicative competence that may be difficult to stimulate in students in traditional classroom environments. They may offer scholars a more participatory practice of learning in which individuals have increased opportunities to interact.
While asserting the importance of learner autonomy, a major preoccupation in today’s educational climate, we claim that on-line collaboration allowed by the Internet cannot replace teachers’ contribution. The complexity of Web 2.0 brings along significant challenges and teachers should be positioned to play a crucial role in managing this experience.
Alphabetisation in the Hungarian as a Foreign Language Classes
Foreigners living in Hungary meet the Hungarian language during their everyday activities and many of them would like to learn it as well. They usually start their studies in language courses or by taking private lessons. Many of them, however, find it difficult to learn Hungarian phonemes and letters either because a different alphabet is linked to their native language and so they are not familiar with the Latin alphabet or because no alphabet is linked to their native language at all. Although the two cases are largely different from each other, they fall within the same category in language courses and are treated in the same way: through alphabetisation. According to the present widespread practice, language students are taught from course books designed for native Hungarian pupils. The success of alphabetisation based on such books is dubious as the target group of such school material is small children who speak Hungarian as their native language. This deficiency is now remedied by Ildikó Schmidt’s programme entitled “Írjunk magyarul!” (Let’s write in Hungarian!) which is school material that helps develop writing, reading and numeration skills and enables adults to learn to read and write in Hungarian at their level of knowledge, through a vocabulary for beginners. Methodology principles are based, on the one hand, on the specialised methodology of native Hungarian education and, on the other hand, on the language-specific methodology of Hungarian as a Foreign Language. In addition to presenting the programme’s basic principles and theoretical background, this study also gives a detailed description of the teaching material through various types of exercises.
The principle of usefulness as motivation in the acquisition of Hungarian as a second or third language II – From the aspect of motivated language learners
My present study is the continuation of a previous research based on surveying unmotivated HL2- learners (G1) on the topic of basic vocabulary and speech acts at the beginning of their language learning process. In my present study I am surveying a group of motivated students (G2) and compare the given results with the unmotivated groups’. To my surprise my first hypothesis turned to be false, but the second seems to be proved. The data given by G2 highlights the need of the personal care of the HL2-learners, even in groups and the importance of teaching through cultural motives as much as it is possible.
Attitudes of Foreign Language Learners’ in relation to Hungarian as a Foreign Language
Recent studies in the field of Hungarian as a Foreign Language tend to investigate the question, who the students of Hungarian language are. These works usually focus on students at Hungarian institutions abroad or foreign students at Hungarian universities.
The emphasis of this paper is somewhat different: it deals with the foreign learners of Hungarian at language schools and private lessons in Hungary, with the aim to find out why they study Hungarian, which language level they want to reach and in what contexts as well as with whom they speak Hungarian.
The research was based on a questionnaire in electronic format. The questionnaire was returned via email by 22 respondents from all around the world. This paper and its findings aim to highlight in what language situations the students need to use Hungarian, where and who they speak with in Hungarian, and what aspects of grammatical knowledge as well as socio-pragmatical skills are worth to be improved.
IV. Interakció, Pragmatika
Students’ disagreement strategies in HFL (Hungarian as a foreign language) classroom
This paper examines the disagreement strategies of foreign students who learn Hungarian as a foreign language, performed in Hungarian language in educational situation. First it defines the notion of disagreement and the factors determining the formation of disagreement. Second it demonstrates the results of an investigation based on audio-recorded university lessons. The paper compares the disagreement strategies of foreign sudents who learn Hungarian as a foreign language and native Hungarian students regarding the specialities of the educational situation.
Multimorpheme interactional routines in foreign language learning and in the teaching of Hungarian as a Foreign Language
The present paper focuses on multi-morpheme interactional routines (MIR), and on the pedagogical relevance of these sequences in Hungarian as a Foreign Language (HFL) learning and teaching. MIR sequences are units of vocabulary (word-forms or strings of morphemes/words) which the speaker uses with high relative frequency, i.e. in a routine-like manner, to achieve specific social-interactional goals, to organize discourse, or to express given ideas. The main aim of the paper is to provide a literature review of the major findings which are relevant for foreign language learning and especially HFL teaching, and which have recently been reached in international and Hungarian research.
Miklós Radnóti and the American Confessional Poetry – Additional Notes on an Analogy
For a long time, interpretations of Miklós Radnóti’s poetry have been determined by the reading methods with the martyr-poet of the Tajtékos ég in the centre. Contrary to this, approaches that took stand on the unity of the oeuvre also came up. In connection with this, among other things, the interpretations that are about the poems from the aspect of Radnóti’s life events are also interesting. While the question of identity has an important role in the poems, the poetry of Radnóti – as Győző Ferencz points out in his monograph – can be viewed as parallel to confessional poetry. This idea can be also relevant because Radnóti’s English reception is really extensive: he is not only the most translated Hungarian poet, but also three monographs, many anthologies and studies have been published about him. The extent of the English – American reception and Ferencz’s idea of the confessional characteristic of Radnóti’s poems offer the opportunity to examine the poetry of a Hungarian poet from an English point of view. Although Ferencz mentions some of the confessional poets, he does not show the concrete connections this paper is about. Taking also advantage of comparative studies, the aim is to look at the confessional characteristics of some of Radnóti’s poems point by point.
The role of Magyarságtudomány journal in the development of the Hungarian Studies
This paper examines first the history of the Hungarology in the 19th century. Ethnographers, historians, geographers and Hungarian language teachers created the scientific basis of the modern theory of selfknowledge and Hungarian cultural mediation abroad.
The second part of this article focuses on development of national idea during the years between the two World Wars. From the viewpoint of the Hungarology this period is very interesting and reach in results because the mainstream of the Hungarian politicans tried to change the Hungarian image abroad. Therefore they founded a modern institutional and scientific network in several European countries. Furthermore they published a lot of books and journals in Hungarian and foreign languages, too. Each of them was connected with the main task: to shaw a realistic picture of the Hungarian cultural values and change the European’s opinion about Hungary.
One of the most interesting and realistic journal was the short-lived „Magyarságtudomány” (1935–37; 1942–43). A lot of articles were published about the real Hungarian social life –without any euphemism – and about the theory of Hungarian studies that is to say Hungarology. Reading these authors it becomes clear: there is a difference between this two terminology, they are not real synonyms: first one is for developing of Hungarian people’s self-knowledge and the other one serves the intention of transmitting culture for foreigners.
VII. Nyelv és kultúra: Hungarológia Európában
The use of Hungarian as second language among young Slovenes: the role of second language confidence and normative pressure
This paper provides an insight into the use of Hungarian as second language among Slovene-speaking secondary school students in Lendava. The conceptual model was inspired by the work of Clément and his colleauges. The hypotheses were tested by a moderated mediation analysis. The results have provided ample support for the predictions. The quality of contact with Hungarian speakers increased the confidence in the second language, which was an important precursor of its actual use. At the same time, it was also demonstrated that second language confidence led to the use of Hungarian more often among those, who perceived greater social support for it. Findings and their implications are discussed.
The difficulties in teaching Hungarian language for students of the Archival Studies at the Comenius University
The students of the Faculty of Philosophy at the Comenius University specialized in Archival Studies are not only required to learn German and Latin but they have to, at least understand the Hungarian language as well. This requirement is based on the fact that due to the history of the area most of the records of the Slovak archival material were written in Hungarian. There are several reasons why the teaching of the Hungarian language in case of the above mentioned students faces difficulties. First of all, none of the teachers of the department of Hungarian Language and Literature are specialized in this subject although this department has been responsible for teaching the students of the Archival Studies since 2000. Furthermore, an up-to-date students` book for learners of the Hungarian language is only in process and far from publishing. The students learn from books published in Hungary and they also use a self study book for Slovaks. Another difficulty in case of most of the students is the lack of motivation. This is only reinforced by the fact that the whole progam of this specialization is inconsistent and there are also shortcomings. The first step in making the teaching more effective could be the elimination of the inconsistency and filling up the shortcomings.
The Areal Context of Hungarian Language and Culture in Europe
Similarly to the definition of historical, areal and typological position of languages the study of the relationship between cultures – with translinguistic extension – can follow the dimension of time and space and consequently the general cognitive perspectve. The complex approach of such interlingual and intercultural relations can lead to the recognition of the originality and the European chacter of Hungarian language and culture.
In the present areal context the importance of this duality and unity is emphasized by the island like character and bridge role of Hungarian language. It is worth investigating in detail the dual manifestation of unseparable language and culture, the possibility of its toning in historical and universal aspects and how its consequences can be mobilized for the sake of language tuition and mediation of culture.
According to the above descibed endeavour the appropriate examples represent the importance of the borrowed layer of vocabulary, the advantageous and disadvantageous circumstances of the translation and reception of the Hungarian literature, the mode of action of inland and foreign conformation of the Hungarian art literary canon.
IMED-KOMM – A blended learning course for LSP in Hungarian
The review presents a new project in the field of LSP. The international IMED-KOMM Consortium is working out a blended learning course for medical doctors, and other health professionals answering the linguistic need of health workforce migration. The languages involved in this projects are Bulgarian, Czech, German, Hungarian and Slovak. The Foreign Language Centre of the University of Pécs is responsible for the course materials in Hungarian. The team co-operates in the development of the tasks with the Institute of Family Medicine of the UP.
Most Magyarul! – Tweetalig Hongarije Magazine
Most Magyarul! is a bilingual magazine published four times annually in The Netherlands, read by mainly Holland and Belgian citizens. The publication contains articles concerning the Hungarian culture, history, literature and tourism. It can offer interesting extra materials for the teachers of the Hungarian language as well.