Facts for upper-pleistocene malacofauna and ancient environment relations of Doboz (Valley of Double-Körös) on the basis of two shallow excavations
The author reveals a significant changing through faunistic and ecologycal examination of 39 (16 aquatic, 23 terrestrial) upper-pleistocene from two shallow excavations in Doboz and 66 (31 aquatic, 35 terrestrial) contemporary molluscs.
43 species are the "fresh arrival" and 13 are the "wandered away" in the contemporary malacofauna. The large-size changing signs the expansion of the adaptive zone of this area and abreast this a large-size increase of the diversity.
In accordance with knowledge of ecologycal needs of upper-pleistocene fauna : grassy-bushy, grovy vegetation can be supposed, and 16 - 17 °C average temperature in July instead of the today 22 °C with malaco- thermometer method.
The chronological classification of the upper-pleistocene sludge in Doboz is: after würm, Bithynia leachy - Trichia hispida biozone, Vertigo geyeri - Vertigo antivertigo zonula - between 10 000 and 12 000 BP years.
Research of the malacofauna in reach of Kápolna-brooklet in Szabadkígyós and anthropogen influences, what hit the brooklet
Area of Kápolna-brooklet in Szabadkígyós getting white alkali is covered mainly with Caricetum vulpinae and Scirpo-Phragmitetum (reeds) on the researched reach, what is 400 m long and 50 m wide. From the area of the reach, which went dry last years, we collected 1328 individuals from 15 snail species (5 water snails - 408 individuals, 10 land snails - 920 individuals) during quadrat sampling (see 2. chart).
In the course of working up the collected material we established that the area what is mosaic-constructed in botanical respect is uniform in malacofaunistic respect, and influences of the flora come out only in abundancy. We learnt that the maximum abundancy is in the reeds (1020 and 336 individuals/m2 respectively).
The main part of individuals consists of Vallonia pulchella and Vertigo pygmaea shells (729 individuals - 79,2%). Consequently dominance and constancy of these two species characterize the examined reach of brooklet.
In malacofauna taking trophic and animal-geographical classing as a basis: saprophagous and Siberian fauna elements dominante.
The significant part of individuals perished, there are a lot of corroded, ET4 condition individuals. This shows the drying out this area, depreciation and degradation in circumstances of their life.
In addition to reclaimation other human interventions set limits to malacofauna: mowing, burning and ploughing up the area.
Unfortunately less and less creatures can bear these environmental damages. Therefore additional depreciation of living world in Kápolna-brooklet is to be expected and its becoming culture desert, if it doesn't get protection.
A Copper Age idol from Sarkadkeresztúr
In 1995 at Sarkadkeresztúr, Imre Szatmári and his colleagues discovered findings from different ages (Neolithic, Copper Age, Bronze Age, Sarmatian and Arpadian Ages), among them an idol fragment.
Dating the findings which did not originate from a pit is difficult, and so is the case with the idol mentioned above. After the first look, it was sure (from the material and the technique of fabrication) that it is from the Copper Age.
During the thorough examination of these cultic objects, the author realised that the idol originates from the Late Copper Age, but it does not belong to the headless sculptures of the Baden Culture, because it differs from them in every part. In the author's opinion this antropomorphic figure fragment belongs to the Cernavoda III-Boleráz or an even earlier culture dating back to the Proto-Boleráz horizon. To prove this statement, some other authentic data are needed.
A Copper Age and an Early Bronze Age settlement at Gyomaendröd
In 1991, in the scope of his microregional researches in Békés county, Dénes В. Jankovich led a sonde excavation in Endrőd (today: Gyomaendröd). The study made by D. B. Jankovich (it is in the press now) deals with the description and photo documentation of the archeological objects.
In this work the author deals with the Late Copper Age and the Early Bronze Age findings which were found at the above mentioned excavation. On the excavated 700 m large area only a few closed objects (three Late Copper Age and one Early Bronze Age settlement features) came to the surface. They only managed to define an other settlement from the Proto-Boleráz horizon after the characteristic pot types. The Early Bronze Age pot fragments are parts of the Makó Culture. An interesting feature of the material is the secondary burnt vessel (fig. 9. 1) and some similar fragments (fig. 3. 7, fig. 7. 8), which were found in pit No. 6. The excavational observations did not mention any burnt layers, so we cannot speak of a fire that affected the whole settlement. Another interesting find is a fragment of what is called a fermenting vessel with knots inside (fig. 9. 2).
In the recent decades the number of sites from the Late Copper Age and the Early Bronze Age has been increasing in Southeast Hungary. As a result, a settlement pattern of these cultures can be drawn step by step. So we can get a clearer picture of the settlement history and cultural connections of a smaller region.
Relics of a settlement of 8 - 9 century from the boundaries of Gyulavári
Forestry of Gyula planed afforestation in autum of 1964 and spring of 1965 on the borderland named Mályvád-Bányarét belonging to the boundaries of Gyulavári, in the Mályvád forest. On the designated area Juhász Irén and Nagy Katalin performed rescue of finds from 12. Oktober untill 28. Oktober, 1964. From dug searching trenches on the scene of afforestation utensil fractions and animal bones revealed what were determined that time as relics of a Slavonic settlement of 9-10th century. The brief data report mentions houses of 3 x 2,5 m in what was also stove, but these objects were interfered with deep-ploughing of 70 cm, so they couldn't be properly observed.
Archeological finds deriving from excavation consist in the greatest part of utensil fractions, from what altogether 477 pes fractions can be ranked into the late "avar" age. One fraction of pot from "neolitic" age, some from Bronz Age and two maybe from "gepida" age were came also to light. A bikonic spindleknob, one glass bead, an oval iron clasp, a fraction of millingstone, fractions of some whetstones and also iron dross belong to finds of excavation, these objects derive in all probability from findgroup of 8-9th century.
We can consider, that the users of unjiggered pots and vessels formed on handdisk, with scratched decoration and the some small articles for personal use (spindleknob, beads, iron clasp) what are the mass of finds, belong to the population of 8th century, who can be characterized with finds of gryphon - trailer. Time of use of some special pieces of the presented findmaterials of the settlement (baking bell, potlid, unjiggered stew-pot) is defined on the turning of 8-9th century or 9th century by the literature. It seems to be certain, that these objects were already used in the 8th century. It is an evident solution when laying the whole findmaterial on the same chronological layer we realize, that relics of settlement Mályvád were bequeathed by population of late "avar age" living on the area during maybe more generations. Members of this community used the potlids, baking bells, unjiggered stew-pots and pots formed by hands and on handdisk, what were finded in fraction.
Medieval Csorvás and its church
The medieval settlement antecedent of present-day Csorvás (Békés county) was first mentioned in the documents in the 15th century and it was destroyed at the turn of the 16-17th centuries. Its site, however, was continuously indicated on the later maps (fig. 1-4).
In June, 1997 we had a two-week excavation to discover the church of medieval Csorvás (fig. 5-6). During this excavation we dug out part of the church of the former settlement: the remains of its choir, of the northern nave walls and also of the north-west corner of the church (fig. 7-11, 30-32). We opened up five graves from the surrounding graveyard, nd we also found the pit of an ossarium (fig. 7, 13, 33/3).
It used to be a single-naved church with a semicircular choir. The foundations of the choir were made from stone laid on stamped earth, strengthened with locally slaked lime (fig. 12, 31, 33/1-2). The foundations of the walls had almost completely been removed, so where they used to have the nave walls, we could only see the foundation pits. The church may have been built around the turn of the 11-12th centuries. The Arpadian origin of the settlement is also proved by the vessel fragments collected on the village site (fig. 17, 18/3), by two 12-13th century coins found on the site and in the close neighbourhood of the church, by three rings with S-shaped tips and by a lunula fragment (fig. 14/7-8; fig. 15/1-2; fig. 26/7-8; fig. 27/1-2). The church walls, in accordance with the formal requirements of Gothic style, were supported by buttresses, probably in the second half of the 15th century. The choir was strengthened with three, the northern nave wall with two buttresses, and where once the choir and the nave were joined, they built a double buttress (fig. 7, 8, 32/1-2). Quite a lot of surface findings from all over the medieval settlement had earlier been taken to our museum (fig. 14, fig. 16/2, fig. 17-26, fig. 28/1, fig. 29), and thanks to this latest excavation, their number was increased (fig. 15, 16/1, 27, 28/2-4).
One of the excavated graves in the graveyard around the church was found inside the choir, another one right outside the junction of the choir and the nave and three more of them under the buttresses (fig. 7, 13). The latter three graves proved that the buttresses had only been attached to the building additionally, in the area of the graveyard surrounding the norking church. In a child's grave found by the outer wall of the choir, we found a late medieval headdress and a buckle, but this grave was outside the buttress (fig. 13/3; fig. 16/1). No findings related to this period were discovered in the rest of the graves, one of which was located in the northern part of the choir.
Main characteristic features of love-life of the peasants in Békés in the first half of the 20th century
The resourchers' attention turned strongly only the last two-three decades to examination of love-life of the peasants and it became clearer, that also by the examination of this topic the unity and completeness of life must be taken into consideration.
The conventions always determined the viewpoints of partner selection, so in the first decade of the 20th century the financial position, religion, residence, profession, age, marital status of the family and the future wife or husband and aesthetical and moral motives as well, were important. The love wasn't belong by all means to marriage.
The collective work and the leisure activities, what changed, modernized more and more since 1920-30s years, provided frame to get acquainted with each other to select partner. Girls were brougt up under stringent control of parents, they had hardly opportunity to obtain proper biological knowledges, sexual experiences before their marriage.
For them the married life, the process of childbirth had a lot of surprises in store, while the lads who got over military service became some well up in the area of sexual-life in brothels or by gay women. Women were often at the mercy both in marriage life and in the area of economic, sincere emotion connected long-lasting only a few people.
Although the peasants consider their own love - sexual life being of no central importance, nevertheless the folkculture is inspired with eroticism from folklore texts through dramatic and other convention to standards of moral and behaviour determining the practice of everyday life, so research of this topic leads nearer by all means to familiarize ourselfs with and understanding deeper the view of life of peasant.
Customs and suppositions attached to pregnancy and infancy in Füzesgyarmat
The publication of data above about customs and suppositions of the turnings of the human life - wedding, christening ceremony, funeral - is a part of a collection's result. Füzesgyarmat inhabited by mostly Chalvinists with population of nearly 6000 people is a typical Sárrétian settlement on the north part of Békés county. Its natural circumstances, matrimonial connections, relationship annex it to Nagysárrét, its economy, historical development to villages of Békés Sárrét.
The supposition circle connected to pregnancy, birth and infancy can be still good approached during field-work. The rememberances of childhood preserve the traditional worth loosening gradually since the beginning of this century. Magic procedures performed in the interests of successful blessing for getting children, healthy descendants spun round the life of the young wife since the beginning of her marriage, and their role growned in the period of confinement what was considered especially dangerous. Unfortunatelly there isn't any comparing data at our disposal from villages of Kis-Sárrét. Irrational activities, course of christening ceremony, sponsorship collected in Füzesgyarmat correspond to noted down by Bartha Elek in Biharnagybajom in the neighbourhood and by Madar Ilona in Sárrétudvari. Communal duty of midwife requires additional research, how she connected the folk and official therapy in addition to white-duty what was general all over Alföld. There was called scientist's attention to necessity of cartographic Sárrét-research even in the 70s years
Suppositions in Sarkad
Economic-social /agro proletarian/ and denominational / Calvinist/ conditions of Sarkad situated on south corner of the former Bihar county weren't favourable for popular traditions that they could get more colour and be taken more care. Deficient remem-berance in popular belief of this settlement shows closer relationship with settlements in Bihar, and viewing it from wider aspect they fit into tales and ideas built around supposition figures and magical procedures known and wide-spread in all over the Great Hungarian Plain.
It appears from the material of today, that supposition elemenets go back deepest to the ancient roots remained the longest but wore out, mostly deprived of their original meanings, combined with elements of other supposition circles. Figures of witch and magic steed are alive even till today. Magic procedures and preventive actions are connected mostly to activity of witches. Ideas linked with magic steed are considerably worn , they emerge even in fragments only seldom. In witchstories animal- and childrendepravation are determining as dominant actions, in demonstrating of exceptional ability exceeding the human power the element of figurechangeing /dog, cat, horse, goose/ is determining. Elements of magic actions go back to age of heathens are : prayer said backwords, analogical activities, importance of hair, body hair, left hand. Application of the prayer murmured backwords is a good example for alloying elements of age of heathens /reproaching backwords/ and Christians /supplication/.
Suppositions and magic procedures being alive till the thirties of this century are dying out from practice by our days, fragments can be assembled with more and more difficulty emerge in oral tradition sometimes.
Czech people in historical tradition
According to the tradition material noted down in the second half of the 18th and the first half of 19th century in Békésszentandrás, Dévaványa, Gyoma, Körösladány in North-Békés county and in Kesznyét situated on the border of Borsod-Szabolcs-Zemplén counties, what are Hungarian-speaking, Calvinist villages settled again, respectively fixed after the Ottoman Turkish occupation of Hungary in the beginning of 18th century, some gardens, old buildings, churches might been built by "Czech, Czech-Hussite people". We have countless facts about the same tradition curcle from Upper-Tisza region, North-Hungary and the South-East region of today Slovakia from villages with also Hungarian ethnic group and Calvinist religion. It is a different question how on the mentioned region, where the czech-Hussite people really have been on the XV. century, did this tradition curcle develop. We don't know about settling of Czech ethnic group neither organized nor spontaneously on the region under discussion. Each one is a settlement of the age of Árpáds with population of Hungarian ethnic group. Experts in studying Hussite age and prereformation consider some meeting of "Hussite religion" and reformation impossible. The czech tradition circle was forgotten by the end of 19th and the beginning of 20th century. There was an intensive migration of nations in directions of South-North, North-South /and West-East, East-West/ on Trans-Tiszanian region in 16-17th century because of campaigns. In the mentioned villages Hungarian Chalvinist families arrived from "upper regions" in the beginning of 18th century were settled. They could bring along the Hussite tradition circle /migration - colonialization - informationcarriers/, namely that every old thing is the bequest of "Czech-Hussite people". Rememberance of Hussite people as "prereformers" couldn't be impossible.
Romanian folk-embroideries in Hungary
National culture of Romanian in Hungary involves different elements from cultures of the Hungarian and other nations, but since they arrived from not the same original place in their today residence, it is evident that cultural elements of Romanian population of different settlements show different characteristics. Thus cultural differences on the one hand were given becouse of the different original places and on the other hand were developed during the living together in their new residence inside boundary of the given settlement.
We can present homespuns and embroideries of the period spreading from the middle of last century on the basis of the memory and the remained textiles respectively when they are elements of a changed folklore culture, so it is difficult to choose the specific romanian characteristics.
Woven - sewn - embroidered textiles are especially the elements of peasant home inside what bear romanian characteristics. It is typical of all romanian communities that recognizing the worth of textiles made with lengthy, expertise work they preserved them. It is common occurence, that textiles preserved worried about them during time of more generations, made for long years are together in big quantity by one or another romanian family, give a good base for studying change of technical resolvings and decorating methods.
Embroidered decorations were used mostly on the things what were intended for festive occasions. Those were some costume pieces or textiles belong to household equipments. Bedspreads, sheets, pillows, table-clothes, gala towels, curtains, wall-hangings can be ranked among these. Among textiles the funeral sheets deserve special attention, since their decoration technique, composition and ormanents used on them distinguish them from other textiles.
Considering the whole romanian folk art the embroidery takes a significant place in it, as it is enough only to think of colourful decorations with varied design of costume pieces and textiles serving for decorating household equipments. On the other hand the embroidery in the circle of domestic Romanian is not so varied. The appearance of decorations worked out mostly with white-embroideries is modest, but rather lengthy work presumable with high technical knowledge was required for them.
The feature of motive treasure of the domestic romanian textiles are so that geometrical decorations and vegetal ormanents are present stressed in compositions, and we can meet significantly less zoomorphic representation than in hungarian or in romanian material.
The order of life is that number of "contemporaries" is getting less continually and the collective national remembrance is selective. Some concepts, facts, events, names get first to the periphery, then sink into oblivion. The anecdote is the document of a social public life of a given age what cannot be substituted for any other thing. In what follows I try to present one - not just peaceful - decade of hungarian history by means of a particular "documentscollection".
Résumé of the collection can't be given from understandable reasons.
Soapcooking, washing, get tidied up
Soapcooking: it is work of women once a year. Grease and grease wastage are used for it. The soapcooking happens in... This is a serious corrosive poison. The works of cooking soap takes up about a day. It must be cooked in a cauldron, in a brass or in an enamel one. Soft water is used, mainly rainwater. The featherprobe shows whether the lye is enough strong. The made soap was gathered from the cauldron from the top of the liquid, took into mould with a big holed wooden spoon. Some days later the not stony soap was cut up into cubes and put away for a year to get harder. Its place was on the balk in the room or in the pantry.
Washing : People in Gyula washed in water in the open air only a long time ago, this method is unknown in the town yet. Mostly on Monday and Tuesday liked they washing. Forbidden days were Freiday and Sunday and the days between two Christmases. On Christmas Eve and on New Year's Day musn't stay any clothes on the loft, because someone will die in the family.
The water was collected from rain or was carried from artesian well, the water from the home wells wasn't suitable for washing. The clothes were soaked on the day before washing. Generally they were washed in trough, there was a cork on its bottom for releasing the water. Mothers teach doughters to wash in their age of 8 - 10.
They washed first the white clothes then the colourful. The white was also boiled. Drying occured on the loft on expanded wires.
Mangling : the halfdry clothes were mangled, this work was made even about 50 - 60 years ago. Handtool of washing in open air water was beetle, and the mangle made the clothes smooth, so it was easier to iron. These tools were made by joiners, but clever countrymen could make them too, sometimes it was gift for marriage.
Ironing: the day isn't regulated. A big table, ironing blanket and maybe ironing sheet is required. 30 - 40 years ago coal-iron was used for ironing after washing-day. They liked it becouse it was heavy, they had not to press on the clothes. They made it red-hot with charcoal, its fire was poked by stovepipe.
Get tidied up : Not so long ago the washing up coused trouble. The daily washing up occured in the kitchen basin, they washed their hands and faces. The teethbrushing was unknown. The whole family used one towel and one hand-towel. Children were started to school with clean hands. When people worked on fields during the day, they couldn't wash hands before lunch. Evening the younger washed also legs, elder washed them not every day. From top to toe family had washing up only on Saturday evening. They warmed the water in a big pot, they used the washing-trough carried into the room. Childrens' hair was washed every week, adults' seldom. The big girl washed herself on every day searching the suitable time and place for it.
Only small babies was washed every day, they were washed first by midwife.
Shaving is a special part of men's washing. They shaved theirselfs in two days, elder only once a week on Sunday morning. They cut off bristle from their face by razor, the place of razor was mostly on balk.
By our days washing methods changed so highly, that folklore topic could be collected only with difficulties.
Analysis of the names of Settlements in Békés county
We have examined the names of settlements in Békés County and came to the following conclusions. The names of villages and towns existent in Békés County at present (80 settlements) were named by Hungarians. If we assume that Kevermes, Kötegyán, Mezögyán and Okány were not named by Hungarians, still the 95 per cent of the names (i. e. 76 settlements) is of Hungarian origin.
Examining the linguistic methods of giving names, our ancestors mostly formed the names of the settlements from personal names (29 settlements - 36.25%). Among the settlements examined Ï1 names (13.75%) were formed by common nouns. There are 14 names (17.5%) which consist of a common noun and an -s suffix.
The names of 10 settlements (12.5%) end in -egyház; -egyháza [ecclesia; ecclesia of...] suffix which demonstrates the intensive downgrade of villages.
Examining the anterior constituents we established that 5 names (6.25%) refer to the name of the county, 4 (5%) to the River Körös, and 4 (5%) to agriculture which is the most decisive character in the settlement named after.
I should mention one more thing concerning the names of settlements in our county. The settlements in Békés County were not all destroyed during the Tatarian desolation, but during the Turkish invasion, which lasted 150 years, almost all towns and villages situated in this area were ruined. Gyula remained continuously existent (since the continuity of inhabitants partly remained) and Békés, Doboz and Okány can also be put into this group with little reservations. The number of the population and the villages in Békés County increased very slowly which is proved by the fact that the mayor part of the villages were re-established in the 19th and 20th century. More exactly, in the 1800s 22 settlements were established while in the 1900s 25 new settlements appeared. Fortunately, most of these towns and villages were named after their precedent settlements which had been destroyed or the former name was modified. Only the following settlements received new names which had been not used before, since there had been no settlements in their territory before: Csárdaszállás, Hunya, Kardos, Kardoskút, Kertészsziget, Körösújfalu, Örménykút, Tarhos, Végegyháza.
The young of March from Gyula
Pálffy Albert was born on 20. April 1820 in Gyula in a noble family. He graduated from primary school in his home town, from secondary school in Debrecen, Nagybánya and Arad. His parents intended him for priest, so he got into seminary of Szatmárnémeti in 1837. But just before his ordination he stepped out and registered at academy of law. He passed the lawyer's examination in 1843 and went to Pest to work as a clerk, but he lived only for literature. He became friend of Petőfi in a little while, beside who he became the member of The Ten's Society (Tízek Társasága) together with Jókai, Tompa, Degré and others.
Pálffy, like his companions, stood under influence of french romantic literature, and his first novels and short stories published in Pesti Divatlap and Életképek were born on the basis of french examples. He didn't really have a great success with these writings, but much rather with his easy-flowing and witty newspaper articles. The hungarian newspaperhistory keeps on record him among creaters of the modern journalist style. In 1847 he got to Pesti Hírlap launched by Kossuth Lajos. He reached the top of his political activity as a political journalist and editor of the newspaper named Március Tizenötödike (15th of March) launched on 19 March, 1848. This paper became the most left-wing, the most implacable paper of the revolution and war of independence.
After capitulation at Világos he went into hiding, but under circumtences like this his volume titled "Bequeathed short stories of a homeless" was published without his name in 1850. Trusting in announced amnesty he returned to Pest in February of next year, but he was soon arrested there. In accordance with amnesty he couldn't be brought to trial, but he was exiled to Ceské Budëjovice (Budweiss) in Czechland. He married here Neveklovszky Stefánia, the doughter of one of citizens disposing over a significant fortune of the town. He kept (cuold keep) in touch with the outside world on a single thread, through his old friend, Pákh Albert, one of members of "Tízek" born in Rozsnyó, who was an outstanding humorist and editor. (At the end of our study letters can be found written to Pákh Albert found by us in Branch Archives in Berzéte of the National Archives of Rozsnyó) .
His life turned better when he with his family could move back to Esztergom in 1856, then to Pest in 1857 after applying for it lengthy. Between 1856 and 1859 his 10 stories and 3 volumes were published.
The publicist Pálffy applied only in the beginning of 1860s newly in newspapers titled Magyar Sajtó and A Hon. In 1867 edititing of Esti Lap, the combative newspaper of Deák, was entrusted to him, though his journalist activity wasn't stopped neither, becouse he published in Vasárnapi Újság and Politikai Újság in the future, too.
After death of his sons and wife he returned to literary life for encouragement of Gyulai Pál, and according to many people he created that time his best writings.
He hadn't got financial troubles. From bequest of his wife he had a house built in Pest, and he passed obviously for wealthy houseowner, becouse he was invited to be the daily commissioner of the Fist National Savings Bank.
He was elected the member of Kisfaludi Társaság in 1864 and corresponding member of MTA in 1884.
He died on 27. December in 1897 in Budapest. Mikszáth characterized him like this: "He was a modest type of the old Hungarian noble people who couldn't be neither bohemian nor pushy caracter. He lived his useful life without any ado and astentation. "
For the initiative, what was took by Cultural Association of Békés county in 28. May 1899, following it with attention of the whole country, Gyulai Pál inaugurated the memorial plaque what was placed on the house where Pálffy Albert was born. Its relief was made by Kallós Ede, its title was made by Szász Károly who belonged once to the circle of "Tízek". The Pálffy Literary Association held its inaugural meeting in Gyula on 22. April 1906, what published a periodical titled as Kalászok.
Bequest of Mjk József hussar major
On 13. August 1849. in Világos only the men staff of Hungarian Army had been arms laid down by commander of czar troops. Officers might keep their side-arms and movable property. For quasi 1400 soldiers a big prison camp was set temporarily between Sarkad and Kötegyán, but some officiers got accommodation in Sarkad, among them also the officiers involved in our source. The unhealthy circumstances of accommodation hurried spreading cholera, also our hero was failed victim into that.
Mjk József major, who was a "gentle, good person and hearty soldier", was born in 1812 in Nagyvárad as a descendant of an unpropertied Austrian noble ancestry family. He served as common soldier since 1830, and as a vicecaptain since 1847 in the hussarregiment No 9. named after Miklós the First, Russian czar. Since September 1848 he participated in fightings against Jellaőic. From 1. Oktober he became chief captain and from March of 1849 he served as assistant of Görgei Artúr General in a major position. From May he worked for Infantry Department of Ministry of Defence. He died in 18. August, 1849, in Sarkad on cholera.
The mentioned sourse gives a detailed picture about his personal property: enumerates his cash, weapons, clothes and other personal articles. We can know what an avarage officier could keep in his possession during campaigns of independence war. We can get shaded picture about both his financial relations and about quantity and size of kit lugged along in case of a single officier.
Beginning of organizing of Independent Small-holder Party in Békés county /1929 -1933/
In 1920 the Small-holder Party of Nagyatádi-Szabó István was in majority in the Hungarian national assembly. In 1922 Count Bethlen István entered into the party, and from inside he made a conquest of it pushing into background the real small-holders. After death of Nagyatádi and following the parliamentary election in 1926 the small staff government-party small-holder groop staying in the parliament wasn't able to express interests of propertied peasantry. For effect of Great Depression in 1929 - 1933 the political organizing of the peasantry became lively, certain layers of it approached each other. Their aim was to revive the Small-holder Party of Nagyatádi-sort.
The small-holder movement in Békés county examined by the study joined to more moderate ones among tendencies developing in several points of the country. The role of the county in establishing the Independent Small-holder Party was determining. The suggestion for reviveing the old Nagyatádi-spirit Small-holder Party was heard first on the exceptional general assembly of Békés county Small-holder Association what was holded on 20. Oktober, 1929. The first platform of the movement was elaborated in December, 1929 in Mezöberény considering the former platforms of the died Small-holder leader. They didn't positioned themself on open opposition basis, but more points of their draft plan, as for example the secret suffrage, aimed to democratize the public life. On 12 Oktober, 1930 the Independent Small-holder, Navvy and Civil Party launched with nationwide validity in Békés, in the name-giving village of the county, and later after uniting with Agricultural Party it inserted into its name the agricultural mark, too.
On the election in 1931 the Party started candidates in three places in the county but they failed out in the first round. In the second round however Szakács Andor in Békés managed to get into the parliament with their assist, and later he joined the Party. Due to party organizing with renewed effort in 1932 and meetings next year the Independent Small-holder Party launched in every considerable village in the county by the end of 1933.
Toyfactory in the turn of the century The story of the First Hungarian wood- and mâchée toyfactory, Bártfa-Békéscsaba 1984-1904-1910.
Last decades of 19th century reform of the economy became sorely needed in Hungary. The chiefly agricultural nature production couldn't keep step with growing needs for manufactured goods and economy was extremely burdened by the huge import costs as well. The mass emigration becouse of cumulative unemployment rushed the economical reform , too. The government passed more laws aimed the industry development what promised big financial subsidization and tax allowance for people undertakeing in the new industrial branches. The toy production appeared among these very soon in the early 80s. This is explicable by fabric of wooden and papier-maché toys of the time, workable with slight financial expenditure, minimal expectations about professional training, and the rising import costs together with growing civil stratum.
The local council's purpose for subsidization was strong as well, what aimed alleviateing troubles with manpower. The toyfactory in Bártfa in North-Hungary was established with these considerations and setting these financial subsidising systems into operation in 1884. Maugsch Nándor manufacturer undertook - subsidised by the government as well - even to operate a toymanufacturing training workshop. Becouse of inaptitude of Maugsch, scarcity of capital and the unresolved commercial activity a new owner, Werher Hugó, took over the factory in 1899. By reason of evolving conflict with local management Werther transfered his factory to Békéscsaba in 1904 after a long search and negotiation. But the industrial subsidization was insufficient for the contractor being deficient in funds while the town did a lot for settling this and other industrial branches and getting agricultural manpower accustomed to it was also difficult. After the death of contractor in 1910 the factory broke off. Its vicissitudinous destiny exemplifies from aspect of both the toy production and the whole hungarian industry what difficulties the man, who undertook a factory foundation, should fight with.
The study outlines the story of toyfactory on the basis of the country and local press and bibliography of the time.
Some feature of nationality-life of Romanians in Gyula in the two centuries after settling
The author makes statements in this study about specifically formed class relations of history of Romanians living in Gyula, concerning the place and role of settlement lived by Hungarian, Romanian, German people occupied in the whole community. The study would like to draw researchers' attention to connections what are essential from the point of view of understanding economical, cultural development of the whole nationality. Not the last aim of the study is that the majority should know more and more about the history and culture of ethnic minority living together with them for centuries.
The study entitled "Some feature of nationality-life of Romanians in Gyula in the two centuries after settling" pointed with summarizing intention to specifically formed history of Romanians living in Gyula and to its class relations. It summarized clearly the role of Romanians in Gyula fulfiled in the discussed term /from reorganization of the county in 1715, untill around the First World War / and the reached population relations and self-organizing cultural efforts attached strongly to church. It throws light upon proportion and representation of local government of Hungarians and Germans living together with Romanians of the town.
It presented in a different chapter the cultural associations of Romanians in Gyula, pointing out their role, importance and emphasizing at the same time the activity of the orthodox church in spreading culture. It presented two outstanding personages, culture patronizing , supporting Maecenases of Romanians in Gyula.
In his study the author didn't strive for completeness, for documenting his message he choosed this time the most important, most typical facts, data. In addition to romanian and hungarian written sources, he applied consistently the methods of "oral history". Beside all of these he used sources got into the collections of Békés county museum last years.