The Earliest Hungarian Settlers of Háromszék and the Frontier Defence
The first summing up regarding the settling history of Háromszék was published in 1929 by József Erőss. Historical, linguistical and archaeological data were collected since then, thus the possibility of a new synthesis was created. The present study concentrates on the early Arpadian age settling history of Háromszék, and, in association with this, draws the attention to the importance of the so-called enclaves, county-islands wedging in the territory of Szeklerland. The coming into being of the enclaves can be connected to hungarian inhabitants, living here before the colonization of the Szeklers.
The first Szeklers arrived to their present-day dwelling-place only in the second half of the 12th century; in the outer parts they made their appearance at the beginning of the 13th century. Therefore, the typically Hungarian archaeological assemblages of the 11-12th century discovered in this region are of great importance. For example: the 12-13th century grave-goods from the cemeteries of Zabola and Petőfalva, the 11-12th century subterranean oneroomed houses and Byzantine coin findings from Csernáton. The settlement excavations at Torja, Bedeháza, Sepsikilyén, Angyalos and Réty unearthed wavy-lined and bottom-stamped pottery, stew-pots, stirrup and arrowheads. Linguistical evidences are reconcilable with the archaeological results: early Arpadian age place-names can be found in Háromszék.
Written sources referring to the medieval county-organization suggest that before the appearance of the Szeklers the territory of Háromszék was part of the Fehér county, which extended over the whole south-east Transylvania. At the beginning of the 13th century we have to reckon with sporadic landed properties and several groups of inhabitants. Szekler and Saxon colonizations divided the former large territory into different parts, since the newcomers benefited from autonomy and privileged legal relations. They could not be subjected to the county. Otherwise, the possessions of the landlords - now surrounded by Szekler and Saxon communities - were left undisturbed, and lived on until the 19th century.
According to the above, the oppinion of the conquering of Transylvania in more phases is groundless. In the 11- 13th century Transylvania wasn't partitioned by political frontiers.
János Baranyai Decsi's Unknown „Antithesis" and his Poem Against the Jesuits from 1587
This study brings to light János Baranyai Decsi's „Antithesis", a piece of the religious polemic literature in favour of the Reform Church against Catholicism, a work believed to be lost; moreover his until now unknown poem against the Jesuits. The author of this study has found both Latin works in May 2001, in the Teleki Library at Marosvásárhely, lecturing there on the 400th anniversary of János Baranyai Decsi's death. (See: Holler László: Baranyai Decsi János, a történetíró. Erdélyi Múzeum LXIII. 2001. 3-7.) They were found in the only surviving copy of the printed description of Baranyai Decsi's journey from Transylvania to Wittenberg taken in 1587: Johannes Cz. Deczi: Hodoeporicon itineris Transylvanici, Moldavici, Rvssici, Cassvbii, Masovici, Prvssici, Borussici, Pomerani, Marchici and Saxonici, exantlati 1587. Wittebergae, M.D.LXXXVII. (RMK III. 764). By means of these discoveries the long-debated question of the authorship of an anonym religious polemic work published in Latin in Basel in 1591 and in the same year in English in London now can be decided. These publications are the following: „Oratio De constituendo iudice controversiarum religionis Pontificiae atque Reformatae... Basileae, 1591." (RMK III. 810) and „The Trial of Trueth, or A Treatise Wherein is declared who should be Iudge between the Reformed Churches and the Romish... London, 1591" (RMK III. P. 5515). From now on this long oratio should be considered as János Baranyai Decsi's work with certainty.
The author publishes the text and the facsimile of the poem's Hungarian translation by Mr. István Tóth, a well known translator of Latin poetry in Hungary and Transylvania. This translation work was Mr. Tóth's last one just a few days before his death in 2001. That's why the author dedicates his paper to Mr. István Tóth's memory.
Hungarian North-Csángó Proverbs and Phrases, Collected by Yrjö Wichmann in 1906–1907
The Finnish linguist, Yrjö Wichmann (1868–1932) has collected in and about Szabófalva in Moldavia 179 proverbs and phrases in the North Csángó dialect, published in 1936 in Helsinki together wit their German translations. 81 of these were found unrelated to similar data in any other language. On the other hand, 24 proved to be European proverbs (EUR) found in 28 to 54 languages, like „Do not look a gift horse in the mouth" known in 48 languages and „The devil is not so black as he is painted" found in 35 languages. There are also several international ones (N), known in less than 28 languages, like „He who mixes with the bran, will be eaten by the pigs" known in 16 languages and „He who walks with honey will lick his fingers" found in 11 languages. Some of these were found in a variant close to their Romanian equivalents.
Some proverbs related to close equivalents in Balkan languages were also found, like „Collect white money for black days" (with close relatives in 5 languages, and appearing in some Hungarian Transylvanian collections too) and „Not all the sparrows are eaten, many are seen flying" (found in 6 languages in the Balkan and also in Turkish and Arabic.) Eight proverbs were found only or were recorded first in Hungarian, e.g. „Paul (well) knows what he mows" (1713) and „Many geese overcome a pig" (first recorded in Hungarian in 1598) – Twenty proverbs have exect Romanian equivalents only, like „Out of ten words of a woman only one is worth listening", „You catch a big fish with a small one" and „Like the Turk, like his pistol."
In 30 items (out of 179) 29 different Romanian loan-words appear, pop (priest) is found four times and loza (willow) twice. Several archaic features of Hungarian grammar, like the non-assimilation of the first wowel of the -val, -vel suffix (meaning: with), and archaic Hungarian words, like 'hiu', 'ünő' also appear.
Applied Hermeneutics in Schleiermacher's Translation of Plato's Works
The general aim of our study is to examine some future possibilities of hermeneutical application in the historiography of philosophy and the translation of philosophical works of the past. In order to achieve this, the present paper provides an interpretation of Friedrich David Ernst Scheleirmacher's classical hermeneutics. This theoretical discourse on the basic concepts of Schleiermacher's methodology formulates at the same time some critical remarks on our own preconceptions concerning romantic hermeneutics. Trying to push beyond the theoretical level, we turn to the author's hermeneutical applications in the translation of Plato's Collected Works. And, finally, in order to close the „circle", we are led back – as always – to the hermeneutical situation of our own present.
Exhaustive Literary Hermeneutics
The question the paper tries to answer is whether we can talk about the hermeneutical analysis of a work of art, or not. Without mentioning the universality or the claim of universality of the hermeneutical approach, we have to examine the consequences of the hermeneutical method or rather the methodlessness of the hermeneutical attitude in relation with the artefact. The real question refers to the way in which analysis arises from understanding. Interpretation always gets shape at the same time as understanding, we know this from the ontological hermeneutics of Gadamer. But we are faced with a real problem if we want to find the way from interpretation to analysis avoiding the thesis that refers to the unity of interpretation and application. Conceiving interpretation as identical with application doesn't allow the attitude, which regards the artefact as something that can be grasped (if we don't want to use the word: object). There is a moment when a movement occurs in the hermeneutical approach from ontological to gnoseological thinking. This is the point where literary hermeneutics marked with the name of Hans Robert Jauss diverges from Gadamer's ontological approach. The present paper tries to comment on this difference.
The Awakening of the Feminine Soul
The Woman has to find the way to her new self, she has to struggle for her new identity. This new identity takes a stand on the same basis from which our ancestral self emerges. Our natural self cannot sway our destiny any longer; it takes an interpreter to comprehend its message. The primordial feminine nature finds its expression in our hidden desires, needs and secret dreams. But we don't always understand this inner voice. In such cases, we can rely on myths or tales which lead us to the inexhaustible sources and supplies of the collective psyche, the archetypes. These are ontogenic milestones which shape the ways the human psyche works, by providing us with patterns of collective problem solving and strategies of dealing with universal problems affecting our lives.
The awakening and unfolding of the feminine soul is a unique process. The tale-subject of our interpretative approach is a typical example of this process. It takes us through the phases of our individuation, showing us the tasks to accomplish and the way back to a woman's ancestral, harmonious self.
Responsability and Law
This paper analyses the reception by ethnic Romanians of a recent piece of Hungarian legislation, the Status Law (státustörvény). The research project reported herein was prompted by a survey carried out by Metro Media Transilvania (MMT), one of Romania's leading polling institutions. Our intention was to check whether Romanians were as inimical to the law as this poll indicated. My team of the Diaspora Foundation, Temesvár/Timişoara, set out with the working hypothesis that the percentage of rejection (89.6%) published by MMT reflects a media campaign that fiercely attacked the law (and possibly also tendentious question-wording). Our challenge was based on a socio-psychological insight: (inter)ethnic coexistence leads to reciprocal empathy and understanding.
The present survey used a stratified sample including counties with varying percentages of ethnic Hungarian population and targeted attitudes regarding a series of topics such as nation and kin minorities, the responsibility of the kin state towards its minorities, standards and models of minority protection, minority ID cards as well as Romanian- Hungarian relations. Our main substantive findings are rather pessimistic and can be grouped as follows. First, ethnic Romanians are poorly informed with regard to the international protection of minorities. They have little knowledge of the extant Romanian 'status law' (Law no. 150/1998) and of the contents of the Hungarian 'law of benefits' (kedvezménytörvény). Consequently, their rejection is not an informed opinion, but an induced reflex. Second, given the week identification of the Romanian population with their ethnic nationals, who live abroad, as well as the emphasis put on the territorial principle as a criterion of identification in Romania, it is no surprise that the nominal ethnic group does not comprehend that Hungarians identify themselves on an ethnocultural basis. However, Romanians are tolerant and seemingly ready to accept that, Hungarians do not use the political nation model and prefer the ethnocultural nation model.