20th century Italian thinkers about freedom
This study, which is part of a longer monograph, presents the standpoint of contemporary Italian thinkers about the problematic of freedom and about liberalism in their contexts. Among these there were active politicians as well: Piero Gobeti, Carlo Rosselli, Luigi Einaudi. They were the creators of the typical Italian liberal-socialist way of thinking, which is also represented (in his own left-wing conception) by the most significant contemporary thinker Norberto Bobbio. This trend inevitably links freedom to the dimension of the individual act, also as a critic of the opinion of a very influential 20th century philosopher Benedetto Croce, who in his hegelian idealism stresses the thought quality of freedom. The study also deals with certain aspects of the Latin American liberation philosophy which explain the problematic of liberal socialism, and consider the (kantian) transcendental philosophy of freedom unmaintainable. Another important focus of this essay is the evaluation of basic research: it pays respect to Guido de Ruggiero's work which appeared in 1925, The history of European liberalism; and it also presents another monograph dealing with the value- reference of liberalism (Giuseppe Bedeschi: The history of liberalism). Finally this work gives the resume of basic research referring to philosophy of freedom, starting with a specific example: the re-evaluation of J.G. Fichte's conception (Luigi Pareyson, Claudo Cesa). The conclusion is that the above mentioned trends are still the representatives of the traditional national deep structure of the Italian philosophy.
Generational relations in time
In this study the author analyzes the time structure of the generational relations in a philosophical approach. The first part deals with the time relations among the individuals forming a generation, which is regarded by the author as non-simultaneous simultaneity. The second part analyzes time relations of generations that interact with and succeed each other, that is, it observes how complicated a structure is generated by the diachronic succession of generations. It is Bergson's, Husserl's, Schütz's, Mannheim's ideas that the study builds upon characterizing the analyzed time structures as simultaneous non-simultaneity. The third part shows - based on the heideggerian time conception - that change of generation means in the same time change of time-attitude and change of ontology in a culture. In the last part the author examines the change in the time relations among generations in a culture with regard to time relativity and time acceleration and the different attitudes toward time of younger and older generations.
Origins of logicality
In this article the author searches for the content origin of logicality and comes to the conclusion that it can neither be exclusively found in the idea of self-construction of logical operations (in the mental logic of Piaget), nor in the imborn aptitudes of the spirit (in Fodor's "mental logic"), nor in the cultural peculiarities of ideas, nor in the language patterns of social communication. Following this comes the examination of the form origin of logicality based on the theory of a prominent figure of the Warsaw school of thoughts S. Le¶niewski and it is shown that the genesis of names and offirmations is undiscovered here too. But in the author's opinion it is nevertheless worthwhile surveying these points of view, as genetic epistemology points it out, that things can possibly contribute to the universal ability of drawing conclusions, the sociology of knowledge discovers that the social plays an important role in the development of logicality and finally the formal point of view makes logicality be distinguishable from objective existence. Not that logicality cannot be part of existence but because this has an outstanding position among forms of existence.
Minority literature - world literature
After World War I., when Transylvania was annexed to Romania by the Trianon treaty, in this new minority position it was vital for the Transylvanian Hungarian culture with a centuries-long tradition to find its place and the motivations of its existence. It took nearly a decade to develop an ideology and literary institutions suitable for this new position. An important role was played in both aspects by Aladár Kuncz who returned to Transylvania as a literary critic in 1923, took part in the founding of the Transylvanian Hungarian writer's free gathering, the Helikon; and was the editor of the Erdélyi Helikon until his death in 1931. As the editor of Erdélyi Helikon he started in 1930 the column Minority literature - world literature with the aim of surveying and presenting the minority literatures of his time, searching for the place of minority as a creator of universal values in the world literature of the 1930's. In this column which was regular during his lifetime but ceased to exist after his death, selected Hungarian and foreign writers and critics presented the American and French regional literatures, the Irish, Catalan, Breton, South-German, Jewish literature and those authors and trends which show the way to the Hungarian literature from Romania with regard to surpassing regionalism and creating universal values. The present study shows this editorial initiative of Aladár Kuncz, paying special attention to the contemporary significance of the writings appearing in this column.
Canon-creation in the minority literatures of the 20s
In the introduction the author surveys the circumstances which caused the canon to be created very late - only in the second part of the 1920's - in the minority literature of the period after World War I. At the basis of the aspiration to canon-creation stands the recognition that a national community can only support itself with the well-constructed system of its own values and ideals. In the Transylvanina Hungarian literature it was Sándor Makkai who took upon himself at the end of the decay the creation of a canon which contains all the possible spiritual values, validates the awareness of specific situation, while he doesn't deny the more universal aesthetic need. That is he achieves the linking of regionalism and European spirit. Makkai's canon is not really appreciated upon its creation; therefore, he impatiently urges the appearance of a "self-conscious public opinion" capable of valuing literature. Such a public will appear only in the 1930's and that is when the institutionalization of canons and polemics around it will take place. The most noticeable canon creation took place in Transylvania. The author touches upon the process in the Transylvanian Saxon literature as well in the Slovakian Hungarian and Yugoslavian Hungarian one, pointing out the similarities and differences. As a matter of fact this essay is a pilot-study for the analysis of the literary processes on- going in the 1930's.
Portrait in letters (The correspondence between Ferenc Balázs and Christine Fredericksen)
The study gives a portrait of Ferenc Balázs (writer and organizer of communities), a colourful personality of the period between the two World Wars, who deserves to be remembered. Following the pattern of situation, function, subject, author, and addressee it presents the correspondence containing five hundered pages between Ferenc Balázs and his wife, Christine Fredericksen. The letters give not only the portrait of the writer but also that of the society the lived in. The way he was able to live and work among the conditions of minority status was not an ordinary one but in some respects it may serve as a model to the future generations of Hungarians living in Romania.