Multiculturalism and University
The author discerns multiculturality, the fact that different cultures live together from multiculturalism, the ideology connected to this fact, and the inner, endogenous definition of multiculturalism (meaning the existence of a many-sided own culture) from the outer, exogenous one, which is the relationship between different cultures. He concludes that in those schools that favour the language of the majority, on the majoritary part the endogenous multiculturalism gets across, but it does not happen so on the side of the education in the language of the minority. In a State proclaimed to be national though multiculturality exists as ontological reality, the minoritary (endogenous) multiculturality is not assured. Using the works of Western specialist (Jürgen Habermas, Frank-Olaf Radtke, Terence Turner, Joseph Haz, Henry Luis Gates jr. and others) he makes it evident that in the advanced democracies multiculturalism has a different meaning than in Romania. There this concept is used to compare the culture of the autochtonous population and that of the immigrants.
Is the Name of the Transylvanian Maros River Identical with Herod's Maris?
The question in the title was formulated in a previous study of the author, this time he undertakes the well-documented explanation of the affirmative answer. His principal is that in the work of Herod quoted in the study the river Maris rushes in the Lower Danube, in the Istros (Ister). To strengthen his view the author refers to the basic geographical work of Strabon, that has the same conclusion. According to the author the identity between the statements of the two famous geographers of the Antiquity is not accidental, it is based on a geographical and hydrographical reality, misinterpreted by many later successors. Other historical-geographical sources of the Antiquity also speak about a river named Maris in the Extra-Carpathian region. These results are confirmed by the Roman ittineraria, whose publisher (K. Miller) considers it a fact, that on the right bank of the Lower Danube, which is Istros (or Ister), near the city of Tutracan, in the actual Bulgaria, there was a settlement named Transmarisca. In the work of an other famous scientist (E. Polaschek) it appears as a postulate, that facing the former one, on the left bank of the Istros, there existed the ancient settlement called Marisca, or Mariscum. In the author's opinion, this could have been somewhere near to the mouth of the river Dâmboviţa or Argeş. (Name that he considers to be of Cumanian origin.)
The Development of the Oroszhegy Region According to the 18th Century Conscriptions
From a local and regional point of view the author investigates the demographical development of Szeklerland, more precisely the region of Oroszhegy (Dealu) as it appears in the 18the century conscriptions, using the data of the Transsylvanian census of 1750 and the first "modern" census which took place in the time of Joseph II. She tries to do more than a simple evaluation, a "mathematical demography" to present the history of the region and its population from a socio- historical point of view. Two main questions are to be answered in the study: which is the order of magnitude in the region and what is the meaning of the demographical rates showing the footing of the population.The author concludes that Oroszhegy and the neighbouring villages are an organic part of the network of small settlements in Udvarhely country, no demographical explosion took place, as the area surrounding the community that lives here prevents it. The community that lives here is a traditionalist one, that does not favour any changes, having a particular development like the rest of Szeklerland.
Mind and Game - Poetical Philosophy of György Aranka
Zsuzsa Varga analyses the poems of György Aran- ka who is better known as an organiser of institutions from the double point of view of the philosophical systems of the era, and the preromantic view on poetry. She admits that Aranka had philosophical ambitions but no capacity of renewing the poetry, but she also recognises the modern tendencies in the consciousness of poetical role of the sensitive philosopher from Marosvásárhely, when she identifies in the text the spontaneity of (occasional) poetry and the emotive surplus of the success. She tries to draw a parallel between Aranka's poetry and that of Schelling's by comparison. By analysing the discourse about literature of György Aranka the study presents a poetry though not entirely original but very particular, eclectic in its subject, both new and old in its language, dating from the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century.
The Sun in the Folklore of Hungarians in Romania
The author presents a chapter from an ambitious investigation including almost all the Hungarian population in Romania: the different concepts about the Sun. Among these one can find the traces of the most ancient sun-myths, suppositions going back to the Christian belief, observa- tions based on centuries of experiences (for example the forecasting of the weather), and last but not least knowledge acquired in school or other forms of popular education. This rich sample of notions shows smaller or bigger alterations according to gender, age, occupation, (the author mentions excellent informants between shepherds) and obviously according to religious belief (both the ancient and the new suppositions being more frequent with the Catholics). Referring to his further researches the author states that the treasure of beliefs connected to the Moon is much more abundant, vivid and varied than those connected to the Sun. In the referential chapter the author presents a sample from the concise, striking popular formulas about knowledge and suppositions connected to the Sun, and illustrating the dimensions of his research he attaches the list of the informants.
Egyesületi közlemények: Az 1998. április 25-i közgyűlés iratai