Andornok of Apát
In 1232, a group of lesser nobles – in contemporary terminology: royal servants (servientes regales) – from Zala county issued a charter about a possessory action they witnessed. The charter was first analyzed as a source for the 13th-century development of the county system, but recently more attention has been paid to the social historical aspects of the document. The paper makes an attempt to identify the person who, as a representative (pristaldus) of the royal servants, tried unsuccessfully to execute the sentence delivered in the case. It finds that the person mentioned by the name of Andornok from the village Apáti (Ondornuch de Apath) was a member of a landowner family living in the village Egyházasapáti, or as it is today called, Nemesapáti, who himself was one of the relatively wealthy, but not quite noble landowners of Zala county. His son, bearing the same name of Andornok, joined the landlords Kőszegis controlling the main part of West Hungary in the 1270s and thus became an adversary of King Ladislaus IV (1272–1290), but in 1274, he surrendered to the king and transferred the ownership of his castle to him. The castle, not named in the sources, can most probably be identified with the castle of Kemend, near Apáti, of which the first known mention is from 1328. But the history of the Apátis seems to suggest that the castle had already existed in 1274, and its founder could be the son of our Andornok mentioned in the 1232 charter, Andornok.
The Family of Charles I Robert
This study of the family history of King Charles I (Robert) (1301–1342) uses a strict genealogical approach to enumerate his wifes and children. In addition to the narrative sources, it makes use of an almost complete database of charters issued at the time, which reveal previously unknown details. The paper makes the following additions to the genealogy of the king. Charles Robert married four times. Between 1306 and 1309, his first wife was Mary, daughter of Duke Leo of Halych. From 1311 till the middle of 1318 he had a second wife, also called Mary, who was the daughter of Duke Casimir of Beuthen. His third wife from the end of 1318 (or the beginning of 1319) till November 1319 was Beatrix of Luxembourg, the younger sister of the Bohemian king. For the fourth time, he married in July 1320 Elizabeth Piast, younger sister of King Ladislaus I of Poland, mother of his legitimate heirs. We have no exact data on the number of his children. It was at the turn of 1317 and 1318 that his illegitimate son, who later became bishop of Győr, was born. In 1323 (and maybe another one in 1321 as well) a son by the name of Charles was born but he died in infancy. Prince Ladislaus lived between the end of 1324 and the beginning of 1329. Louis, who became king of Hungary (1342–1382), was born on 5 March, 1326. He was followed on November 30, 1327 by Andrew and on August 20, 1332 by Prince Stephen. Charles I must have had one or two daughters: the supposed Catherine, born in circa 1321, and Elizabeth, who must have been born between 1327 and 1332.
The University of Pécs in the Middle Ages and its Founder
The article consist of three parts. In the first, the author focuses on the establishment of the university (founded in 1367) placing it into a Hungarian and Central European context. It points out that even though it was the Hungarian king who submitted the plea for founding the university to the Holy Father, the establishment of the institution as well as the proposal for its location can be traced back to the bishop of Pécs, Vilmos of Bergzabern or Vilmos of Koppenbach, as he was also called. It is conspicuous that, unlike the universities of Prague, Cracow and Vienna, it was established in an episcopal seat and not in a royal center. It is true though that the town was the center of one of the richest dioceses in medieval Hungary where an excellent chapter school had existed for some time and where the chapter house could provide an adequate "library background" for the university. It is not negligible either that Pécs by its location fit well into the Southern and South Western oriented foreign policy of King Louis I.
In the second part of the article the author – touching upon the future bishop's diplomatic activity – describes the career of Vilmos of Koppenbach, the founder of the university and its first chancellor. Drawing on written sources and archeological evidence, the third part surveys the history of the university, its professors and students.
Famuli in 14th-century Hungary
Famuli in 14th-century Hungary can be divided into two groups. The members of the first were low-class servants, while those belonging to the second possessed some talent and expertise. The famuli of the first group owned no land and their status was similar to that of the serfs, though not necessarily identical with that. We cannot establish, however, if the status of a serf or a landless famulus was better.
Those famuli whose status was better were usually more educated. They had some legal education, often they served their lords as procurators (lawyers) and received valuable presents from them. Famuli could excel in military service on the side of their lord, who in turn gave them gifts. We know of a case when a famulus was granted 80 (Hungarian) acres of land and a plot. Famuli very often were their lords' bailiffs (officiális). We know of a famulus who was a citizen and a deputy judge, while others worked at the customs office or were officials of the county. The better-off famuli could have their own famuli. We see that a famulus procurator was treated as equal with the other procurators. So a famulus could be a slave, but he could also be a talented and educated person in the service of another, and by these abilities he could ascend to higher ranks.
Miraculous Escapes from Turkish Captivity
It was in 1390, after the battle of Kosovo Polje (Rigómező) that Ottoman invasion against Hungary started, first in the region of Srem (Szerémség) and Temesköz. At the beginning of the 15th century, marauders appeared in Croatia and Slavonia, and in the 1420s they led attacks against Wallachia and Transylvania. The Ottoman armies started their conquests on Hungarian territory in the 1520s only, but by that time they had already inflicted heavy losses on the people. The so called miracle records provide details about the prisoners taken by the Turks, the hardships they suffered and the chances of escape they had. From among the most significant sites of pilgrimage in late medieval Hungary miracle records were preserved in two, at Újlak and Budaszentlőrinc. The former contains stories from the years 1458–1461, while the latter, compiled by Bálint Hadnagy, covers the years 1422– 1505. John Capistrano helped escapes from captivity in 4,6 percent (or 23 cases) of his recorded miracles. St. Paul the Hermit liberated those asking for his help in 18 cases (20 percent of his miracles). Almost half of the liberated prisoners escaped from Ottoman captivity, which is a clear sign of who was the most dangerous enemy at the time.
The majority of the stories describe in detail the circumstances how the prisoners were captured, the hardships they had to bear and the way they escaped. We can only find one person among the prisoners who fell into captivity as a soldier. The rest, later asking for the help of St. Paul or John Capistrano, were dragged away from their homes. All those who testified were captured (or almost captured) in the most endangered regions of the country: four in Temesköz, four in Valkó county, three in Srem county, three in Csanád county, one in Baranya, one in Somogy and one in Bács, north of the lower Danube. Those who could not find shelter during the raids were driven towards the southern borders, bound and shackled, through the Sava or the Danube. Almost all of them mentioned the robes and the shackles because these were the first things they had had to get rid of to escape. They could not count on third party help. There is only one instance when it was the raid of Hungarian troops that made the escape possible. Only a few could hope to be released in return for money, the documented cases mention only two persons who were released for ransom. The prisoners transported through the Danube or the Sava arrived at enemy territory. The Serbians living under Turkish rule did not help them, rather they tried to make profit out of the slave trade. Returning home was the most difficult for those who were taken to the inside of the Ottoman Empire. After their escape, the prisoners did what they pledged and visited the tomb of St. Paul or John Capistrano. It was also a custom to leave the proofs of the escape at the tomb. The most significant shrines in Hungary were full of robes and shackles, which were even found at foreign sites of pilgrimage. The Kingdom of Hungary had supplied the Ottoman Empire with slaves for centuries. How numerous they were is well illustrated by Felix Faber, author of one of the most famous itineraries of the time, who, returning from the Holy Land in 1483, met a large number of Hungarian slaves in Cairo.
Augustinian Hermit Monasteries in Hungary
The article focuses on the history of the least researched monastic orders of medieval Hungary: the Augustinian friars. According to recent findings, between the 13th and the 16th centuries the order had about 40 monasteries, which in the 15th-16th centuries made up seven districts (districtus). The first friars are believed to have come from the territories in Southern Germany and Small Poland. Unlike the Dominicans and the Franciscans, this administrative grouping corresponds to certain territorial groups. It is striking how many monasteries were established in small settlements, partly because of the relatively late arrival of the order, and partly because of the lack of a well-designed settlement plan. Monarchs were the most zealous supporters of the order, followed – in the early years – by the bishops. From the second half of the 14th century, however, landlords and nobles play an increasingly important part in supporting the Augustinians. The late 15th and early 16thcentury religious reforms had little influence on the Augustinian friars, though the number of new foundations compared to the total number of monasteries was significant, about 20-25 percent. The order must have had a highly developed educational system, though we can only assume this on the basis of the scanty evidence we have at our disposal. The location of the majority of the monasteries have not been precisely identified, the occasional archeological research mainly focused on topography. Significant findings have only been discovered in Buda, Vác, Bátmonostor and Pápóc. Though completely rebuilt, the monasteries at Bártfa, Kőrös and maybe even Eszék and Velike have survived to the present day.
Elmélet és módszer