This study takes under magnifying glass the measuring material of a former article obtained by roleplay method. The question – put at the beginning of the essay – is why the sociopragmatic measurement – done by myself – is suitable for explaining the linguistic misunderstandings among groups that speak the same language but have different ethnic backgrounds, and providing an appropriate view of their usage. The analysis of the dialogues, based on six theoretical models, also demonstrates this, moreover it gives the answer to the question which supposition could justify the origin of pragmatic mistakes mostly. The approaches of the dialogues are as follow: speech act theory, interactional sociolinguistics, the etnography of communication, conversation analysis, relevance theory and pragmatics.
The relationship between intentionality and communication in the pragmatics
The main hypothesis of the article is that there has been an attitude change in the field of pragmatics: the philosophical notion of intentionality has penetrated in a cognitive approach. The first aim is to argue for this attitude change via analyzing classical pragmatical writings (works of J. R. Searle and H. P. Grice) and the relevance- theoretical approach of D. Sperber and D. Wilson. The second aim is to argue for the legitimacy of the attitude change by presenting a new direction of research within the field of cognitive pragmatics. The author summarizes Dan Sperber's metarepresentations-first hypothesis about the evolution of ostensive-inferential communication, identifies its implicit presuppositions and analyzes its implications for evolutionary psychology and other related disciplines. The conclusions are the following: (1) the philosophical notion of intentionality play an important role in cognitive pragmatics as well (i.e. it uses the Gricean concept of non-natural meaning, and the Searleian distinction of first- and second-order intentionality), (2) the attitude change has enriched the notion of intentionality, (3) this enrichment makes new research directions possible in the field of pragmatics. ? A tanulmány az OTKA NI 68436 sz. pályázatának támogatásával készült. Köszönettel tartozom Németh T. Enikőnek és Pléh Csabának a kézirathoz kapcsolódó értékes megjegyzéseikért és kritikájukért.
This article is an overview investigating the forms and functioning of loans in the context of cross-cultural communication. We studied the case of English-language description of the Chuvash culture. The data were collected from the analysis of books and newspaper articles, as well as texts from the internet in English. The results of our study reveal that the Chuvash-English communication process gains some specific features as soon as in most cases the contact is not direct but through Russian. These features are prevailing number of indirect borrowings, variating spelling and penury of word-building paradigms of Chuvash loans.
The Figure of Increase (hyperbole) in the XVI Century French Ramist Rhetoric
In my study I propose to present the French ramist hyperbole–theories and to provide an overview of the most important conceptions which served as the basis of Ramée’s rhetoric. Hyperbole (sometimes called figure of increase) is a mental process by which statements are quantitatively or qualitatively exaggerated. It may be used to evoke strong feelings and to create a strong impression. This trope is often accomplished via comparison, similar, metaphor: that is why the XVI century French ramist rhetoric considered it as a trope based on the mechanism of the metaphor, but they also grasped its interference with metonymy. A comparison of the results of the theoretical approach and the conclusions issued from the empirical analysis of examples–two basic aspects of descriptive analyses–produces the most important result of my following paper.
The Figure of Abuse (catachresis) in the XVI century French Renaissance Rhetoric
In a more general sense, „abuse” refers to rhetorical vices (elocutionis vitia), or, in a positive sense, to the rhetorical habit of employing a word in a sense at odds with its original use. Apart from these interpretations the term catachresis is used to denote something radically different from its normal meaning via the mechanism of the metaphor or metonymy. In the following study I am going to present of XVI century French conceptions about the figure of abuse (??????????) as well as give an account of some influencing Greek, Latin and Renaissance theories. I also propose to re-consider the examples which the authors quote to explain the mechanism of the trope called catachresis. The analysis of these examples reveals the process of creating definitions (as well as the possible self-contradictions and faults inherent in them) and helps to find strategies of interpretation.
The features of the empty pronominal category PRO in Russian
The empty pronominal category PRO was introduced in linguistics by Chomsky. Based on the research of English examples Chomsky concluded that PRO lacks case as it is always ungoverned. The study of Russian examples, however, provides a better ground for the examination of PRO’s case features. Attempts for the characterization of the case features of PRO in Russian were made by Franks and Testelec. Comparing and contrasting their arguments the author comes to the conclusion that although PRO lacks case, it can transmit case features.The empty pronoun PRO was present in Old Russian as well. In chapter 4 the author tries to give an explanation for the dative subjects of dative absolute constructions.
This paper discusses nominalisations formed with the derivational suffixes -ung in German and -Ás in Hungarian as they appear in possessive constructions. These suffixes can be used to derive both event and result nouns. In addition, an interesting observation can be made in connection with these constructions: they tend to be polysemous due to the fact that the argument that appears in them can be interpreted in different ways.
In connection with English and Hungarian, the fact that the derived nouns keep the base verb’s argument structure in some cases but not in others is considered a particularly important phenomenon in the literature. On the other hand, the relevant literature for German does not assume argument inheritance for any use of the noun, but claims instead that it is always the verb’s meaning that determines the rules that decide whether certain satellites of the noun are obligatory or optional. I confront these two positions with each other and examine whether there really is a substantial difference between Hungarian and German in this respect, or whether the differences in the theoretical explanations arise simply because the background assumptions and goals of the researchers in question are different.
The Theory of Tropes and Figures in Classical Greek and Roman Rhetoric
Understanding tropes and non-tropes as results of mental processes is confronting long-debated questions in linguistic studies: how to distinguish tropes from non-tropes; how to explain and interpret tropes and figures; and how to classify them. My present paper purposes to overview ancient Greek trope- and figure-conceptions from the beginnings. Nevertheless, Roman and early Medieval European rhetoric does not fail to produce its own particular results either. The passages presenting the greatest Roman and early Medieval theories of distinction of tropes and figures permit an implicit critique of the Greek theories, too, and they demonstrate the ways in which these conceptions surpass (or fall behind) the previous theories.
The present article aims at posing a conceptual and theoretical framework for the investigation of dominance relations in language. The general question of language data examination is how the asymmetry in dominance relations arises between professional and non-professional speakers in the course of trial processes. The article consists of three parts. The first gives a short summary of the notion of power in recent linguistic research. In the second part the author introduces two theoretical frameworks for carrying out the investigation of language data – speech act theory and conversation analysis. The author in this section tries to find out whether these theories can be used together. In the third part the author gives an illustration of previous points and presents a set of power strategies used by a professional member (judge) of legal discourse. Our conclusion is that asymmetry in the discourse of members of legal institutions can be successfully described applying the above suggested theoretical frameworks – conversation analysis and speech act theory.
The topic of this study is the mapping of pragmatic competence and pragmatic development of pupils – who live in different cultures – with reference to apology. The article examines the language usage of first- and fourthform Hungarian and gipsy primary school students from pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic point of views. The results show that the pragmatic competence of pupils improves during school years: they use more and more complicated strategies and their communication with adults is increasingly successful. The evaluation of the development of pragmatic competence is made considering the results of socialpsychology. The result obtained this way can be the starting-point for pedagogy to improve the pragmatic competence of pupils.
Psychological evidence suggests that human meaning construction tends to favour analogs that have several kinds of correspondences at different levels of linguistic organization: semantic similarity, pragmatic relevance and isomorphism (for a detailed study of these constraints, see Thagard et al. 1990). Although most theorists of anal-ogy acknowledge that processing goals and context might exert some influence on analogical inference, they dif-fer as to whether such pragmatic constraints directly enter into the mapping process.
My main objective in the present paper, thus, is to show that an adequate model of analogical thinking in gen-eral and metaphor processing in particular should take into account the context of reasoning not only prior to and after the analogical mapping but also during its operation. I will explicate my views on pragmatic influence in speech representation within the theoretical framework of conceptual integration (or blending), an essential though interim phase of metaphorical extension.
The following study was inspired by Herwig’s article from the 1990’s that gave a thorough analysis of the word ‘inflation’ by establishing its usage profile based on corpus evidence. The novelty of my approach comes from the fact that while Herwig gathered his data from his own corpus my corpus data were compiled with the help of a web-based concordance provider. Therefore my study also attempts to justify the significance of the Internet as a huge linguistic data source highlighting its advantages over traditional corpora. Following Herwig’s footsteps, I created a so-called usage profile of the word ‘deflation’, which is later compared with the profile of the word ‘inflation’. My usage profile includes colligation features, typical collocations and metaphorical uses. This latter one contributes to the investigation of mental schemes native speakers have in mind concerning these two terms.
The term pragmatisation denotes a kind of language change, which includes the linguistic codification of certain pragmatic contents. Processes of this type are nowadays mostly described as grammaticalisation and this results in proliferation of the term. Pragmatisation as a complementary process to grammaticalisation could help to remedy this situation. Guided by this insight, the present article examines the supportability of the concept of grammaticalisation in the development of pragmatically motivated parts of speech such as discourse markers and modal particles.