Philology yesterday – and today
The concept of philology has several definitions though obviously none of them are complete. What we wish to emphasise here is the importance of words, sentences, and texts. The former notion of 'classical philology' has become broader: we can now speak of Slavic, Romance, Germanic, etc. philology, too. Characteristics of world view lurking behind texts (or individual words and expressions) are exemplified in the present paper. The semantic development of Hungarian úr 'gentleman' is presented in detail, as well as a number of interesting words coined during the Croatian language reform like razvodnik 'lance corporal', .astnik 'officer', and brzojav 'telegram'. Philological research is also interested in local dialects and minor (local) languages like the Croatian dialect of the Mura Region (Western Hungary) whose lexical items reflecting a Hungarian influence also reveal the speakers' linguistic world view, e.g. ovudaš 'nursery-school child' (cf. Hung. óvodás 'id.'), masekerati 'work in private, have private patiens/students' (cf. Hung. maszekol 'id.'). Intriguing cases of language contact can also be attested in translated texts; for instance, a Croatian translation of Werb.czy's Tripartitum contains a number of outlandish syntactic structures quite unfamiliar in Croatian (or in Slavic languages in general).
Keywords: philology, text, linguistic world view, gentleman, officer, telegram
Vowel durations in spontaneous Hungarian speech
Vowel durations have been investigated by many researchers; the issue they have especially wanted to resolve is how a given factor influences the timing of a segment. Hungarian has five pairs of vowels whose short and long members do not differ (or only minimally differ) in their quality. The present paper reports on an investigation of a spontaneous speech corpus with respect to temporal relationships of high and mid Hungarian vowels phonologically constituting five short/long pairs. Differences in physical duration between short and long vowels were found to be significant and were mathematically confirmed. In spontaneous speech, overlaps between the durations of short and long vowels are nevertheless large; the exact temporal data are also influenced by vowel quality and phonetic position. Vowel durations attested in 110 minutes of recorded spontaneous speech by ten subjects suggest that speakers, albeit without being aware of the fact, tend to make sure that long vowels are pronounced with a longer duration than short ones.
Keywords: spontaneous speech, duration, phonological opposition, phonetic position, automatic classification
Kosztolányi's activities in language cultivation
Dezső Kosztolányi's joining the language cultivation movement of the 1930s, including his active participation in language care, was severely criticised at the time, and still is. However, today's language cultivators in this country have always regarded him as an authentic and confirmative figure of their own activities. In order to resolve the contradictions surrounding his role in this respect, this paper subjects his principles and work to a complex philological analysis taking the historical context into account and focusing on the following characteristics: wishing to reinforce speakers' fondness of their language and their mother tongue awareness as the aim of language cultivation; Kosztolányi's intended audience – careful language use as a requirement for the general public; responsibility for language as a duty of the literati; his views on good usage; and the way he intended to reach his goal – tolerance coupled with a militant tone.
Keywords: mother tongue awareness, careful language use, good usage
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
On meta-text and intertextual meta-text operators
In this paper, the author presents the notion of meta-text as defined by various authors and provides a detailed discussion of meta-text operators referring to intertextual relations. Meta-text operators (1) determine the way of introducing "imported speech" into a given text [including (a) reference to the author of imported contents; (b) reference to imported information not containing a specific author's name; and (c) reference to a piece of common knowledge]; (2) introduce conclusions drawn from the context of communication; (3) refer to knowledge shared by sender and addressee; or (4) refer to the context of communication without introducing contents embedded in it.
Keywords: metalanguage, meta-text, meta-text operators, intertextual meta-operators
Memories of old times in geographical names from Tolna County
Collecting and studying historical legends has a long tradition in ethnography. The 1960s saw the publication of numerous collections of geographical names of counties and districts, which can also be used as sources for research. Based on Tolna megye földrajzi nevei (Geographic Names of Tolna County), written by the present author, this paper assembles the legends of important events and outstanding personalities of Hungarian history from the end of the 10th century to the middle of the 19th century.
Keywords: Tatar invasion, King Matthias, Turkish rule, the age of the Kuruc, Hungarian War of Independence of 1848/49.
A brief survey of the issue of deixis
This paper approaches deixis, one of the favourite topics of traditional pragmatic research, from a functional cognitive point of view. It presents deixis as an operation that extends discourse interpretation to involve the participants' physical and social world; that is, to rely on their contextual knowledge based on their mental processing of spatial, temporal, and interpersonal relationships of the given speech situation. This approach takes the phenomenon of deixis to be closely connected with the physiological and discursive grounding of linguistic cognition.
Discourse participants start from their own bodies in experiencing and mentally processing the physical world that surrounds them. However, that process is embedded in socio-cultural praxis, due to the fact that the operation of deixis presupposes social interaction. The speaker uses deictic expressions in order to draw the addressee's attention to the speech situation, or to an object or event occurring in it, or to a constituent or property of such an object or event. If, in describing the operation of deixis, we start from the dual grounding of linguistic cognition, this has essential consequences for the kinds of deixis we observe and for the working of the deictic centre. Embodied grounding makes spatial deixis a basic category associated with observation of the physical world; this is best shown by the fact that some deictic expressions referring to spatial relationships may serve as metaphorical bases for the deictic expression of interpersonal, temporal, or discourse-internal relationships. The egocentricity of the deictic centre, making the actual speaker the referential centre of spatial, temporal, and interpersonal orientation in the default case, can also be explained in terms of physiological determination. On the other hand, the discursive grounding of deixis draws our attention to the essential role of social deixis that underlies the roles of the participants of a speech situation, making their respective social roles recognizable and pliable. Discursive grounding is also necessary for making the problem of deictic projection tractable, where the term 'deictic projection' refers to the fact that participants are able to process spatial, temporal, and interpersonal relationships, and make them accessible for others, form a vantage point other than their own.
Keywords: embodied and discursive grounding of cognition, situational context, physical and social world of participants, deictic centre, deictic projection, spatial and temporal continuity
Szó- és szólásmagyarázatok