Popular language and its study
The author’s intention is to clarify some uncertainties and issues surrounding the term ‘popular language’ and the notion it identifies. The paper gives some data and an analysis of the history of research and history of terminology with respect to ‘people’, ‘popular language’, and ‘the study of popular language’ in a Hungarian context. According to an interpretation that corresponds to the linguistic and social facts in present-day Hungarian, a brief definition of ‘popular language’ is as follows: 1. a) a particular non-standard way of language use (that can be related to level of education and to speech situation): the way of speaking characteristic of speakers of traditional culture and containing primarily dialect-bound phenomena; b) the sum of linguistic features and means of expression characterising that way of speaking. 2. A cover term for regional dialects.
The linguistic tools of commercial and political propaganda
This paper states that propaganda, whether it is commercial or political, capitalizes on the hidden contents of texts. Advertisers hide their claims discrediting their competitors or praising their own services in presuppositions that are represented as shared background knowledge. The receivers are normally aware of the attempts at influencing them. Political propaganda produces an effect by the help of hidden contents found in news items, too. The receivers are unaware of the attempts of influencing them or of the fact that they come to know the speaker’s model of reality rather than the actual facts. The paper analyses specimens of conversational implicatures produced by bridging, found in news items taken from political daily papers, that can be classified pragmatically as cases of deceit.
Nyelv és stílus
On a possible text stylistics
The aim of this paper is to present a new (variant of) stylistics. It is the result of an interdisciplinary cooperation between text linguistics and stylistics that are totally and completely interwoven here. It has to be emphasised that it is not in terms of its subject-matter that text stylistics primarily differs from other stylistic disciplines but rather in terms of two traits that can therefore be considered to be distinctive features of the discipline: 1. A text linguistic orientation or even textologydependence which shows text linguistics to be the primary source for creating several constituents of text stylistics and for its development on the whole. For instance, style types are derived from text types and domains (branches) of text stylistics are delimited and characterized according to the text levels at issue. 2. Its methodology is constituted of text-centred principles, consequently, research in it is determined by a supertext quality, respectively by the text in its entirety.
A modern linguistic approach to Attila József’s poems
This paper surveys some new aspects of approaching literary works of art in terms of a sequence of trends in linguistics and literary criticism that emerged in the second half of the twentieth century. Those trends did not simply follow one another but they also reflected on one another in many ways and even synthesised the others in certain respects. They included the structuralist, semiotic, textological, pragmatic, and cognitive approaches. In particular, the paper discusses those aspects in Attila József’s poem You know there is no remission. In Part One, some of the structural/ textological/rhetorical characteristics of the poem are mentioned (structure, syntactic structure, versification, verbality, vocabulary, word-ethics, some figures, etc.).
Nyelv és iskola
The possibility of teaching intertextuality
Intertextuality is a fundamental phenomenon of literary history and a basic component of the literature of the post-modern age; as such, it occupies a central position in today’s literary criticism and theory. The present paper aims to help teachers of Hungarian literature who are interested in the topic and who would like to guide their students in the world of present-day fiction by proposing two theoretical approaches to the concept and phenomenon (involving the types of intertextuality, and intertextuality in the post-modern age). Then, the author presents intertextuality as an organising principle in the poem Új magyar Messiások [New Hungarian Messiahs] by András Ferenc Kovács, discussing it from the point of view of teachability and providing possible guidelines for its concrete adaptation for teaching purposes.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
Analytical constructions with deverbal nouns and delexical verbs in comprehension
In Hungarian, as in other languages, simple verbs are often replaced by analytical constructions using a deverbal noun derived from a simple verb and a semantically depleted ‘delexical’ verb. Traditional language cultivation holds that such constructions are alien to the spirit of the language: they come from other languages through translation. It is also claimed that analytical constructions are more difficult to comprehend than simple verbs, and are only used by people who are lazy to think and talk straight. However, the Handbook of Language Cultivation concedes that some analytical constructions are acceptable, some have no single-verb alternatives, and some “sound” downright good.
Conjunctions as meta-textual operators
Examples from spontaneous speech suggest that conjunctions like and, but, because may not fulfil their original functions of connecting words, constructions, or clauses; they do not even connect contexts that are situated far from one another: very often, they refer to contexts that are only represented in the operative memory of the information sender or the receiver. The point is that the sequences és ‘and’, (na) és ‘and then’, de ‘but’, (na) de ‘but then’, mert ‘because’, studied in this paper, do not necessarily behave as conjunctions in spontaneous speech but rather they play a meta-textual role and help spoken text production in that way.
Historical problems of parts of speech
The problem area of the history of parts of speech is rather complex. The range of topics belonging here does not only include changes of part-of-speech affiliation (conversion, zero derivation, transmutation) but also a number of other issues like various ways of word formation by which certain word classes become larger, their stock increases by lexicalisation or like the problem of what syntactic reasons or circumstances, formal or functional aspects of the system play a role in the creation of new lexical items. In addition to individual words (the issues of word formation and conversion), the changes of word classes as wholes (for instance, cases where a new part of speech emerges, becomes part of the system, like conjunctions or articles) have to be investigated, as well as the consequent modifications of the whole part-of-speech system.
Suprasegmental characteristics of texts of various genres
A phonetic investigation of various types of texts is definitely justified since all genres have their specific features in the way they sound. In a two-task perception test, the author intended to find out whether the genre of a text can be identified by listening to its suprasegmental structure only, and if it can, which suprasegmental feature is the most characteristic of which genre. She also wished to find an answer to the question of whether the suprasegmental characteristics of the individual genres can be identified irrespective of the language and/or the cultural setting involved. The test was administered to three age groups, as well as to both Hungarians and non-Hungarians. It was assumed that the identification of certain genres is unproblematic in all age groups but there will be genres that are more difficult to determine. Another hypothesis was that, irrespective of the distinct intonational and stress structures of the various languages, the sound of certain genres is more culture-dependent than based on linguistic differences.