A linguistic approach to a new genre of the media: the sms news
News items constitute a basic genre of the press and the media. One type of content provided by mobile phone companies on a subscription basis is sms news service. Such news items belong to a novel form of mass communication known as new media (polimedia or metamedia), and accordingly they modify our concept and definition of ‘news item’. This paper surveys the characteristics of sms news on the basis of twelve criteria of linguistic pragmatic analysis. Thus, a number of features are revealed that fit written language, spoken language, or else, in a modified form, the medium of sms, also known as secondary written language. Such features include the relativisation of orthography, the lack of headlines, the avoidance of repetition, various spokenlanguage phenomena, misassociation, ambiguity. In sum, sms communication indeed produces a new from of existence for language, leading to linguistic changes not only in private communication but also in media communication.
Nyelv és iskola
Nép és nyelv
Béka ‘frog’ in plant names
Popular plant names are not only important for their linguistic and botanic aspects but also as part of the cultural history of mankind. Of the various subtypes, plant names involving animal names are especially intriguing. Many Hungarian plant names involve béka ‘frog’ as an anterior constituent, for instance: békabuzogány ‘bur-reed’, békadunyha ‘frog’s blanket’, békahagyma ‘frog’s onion’, békakáposzta ‘frog’s cabbage’, békakorsó ‘water-parsnip’, békakosár ‘frog’s basket’, békaláb ‘frog’s foot’, békalencse ‘duckweed’, békaliliom ‘water violet’, békarokka ‘shave grass’, etc. This animal name almost exclusively occurs in names of plants growing in water or in moist places. The author discusses the word history and word geography of 60 such plant names found in various botanic treatises, folklore texts and linguistic compendia, trying to explore their conceptual background and motives and to give etymological explanations.
A nyelvtudomány műhelyéből
On the conceptualisation of negative emotions belonging to the domain of fear
Talking about feelings expresses the ways of experiencing emotions – and acting or behaving in accordance with them – that are conventionally associated with them in the given culture. Negative emotions belonging to the domain of FEAR (alarm, anguish, anxiety, concern, consternation, dread, excitement, fright, horror, panic, scare, shudder, terror, tremble) are often conceptualised in Hungarian as a FORCE PARALYSING HUMAN BODY, as a CONTAINER [into which emotions get as a SUBSTANCE (MOVEMENT IN), in which they are contained, and out of which they emerge (MOVEMENT OUT)], as a LIQUID SUBSTANCE, as a GASEOUS SUBSTANCE, as an ENEMY, as a DOMINATOR (OCCUPIER), as an ANIMATE BEING (MAN, BEAST, BIRD), as a BUILDING, as a MIRROR, or as a POSITIVE FORCE.
Ellipsis in the structure of compound words
Hungarian coordinated compound words may involve ellipsis. The paper outlines the proposal that ellipsis should be regarded as non-insertion of the phonological form of a lexical item into the structural representation. Accordingly, lexical and grammatical features are present in the position of ellipsis, and thus participate in the interpretation of the compound word concerned. This approach rejects the view that the “missing” material would be deleted phonetically, and therefore would have to be reconstructed. “Silent” lexical items without a phonological form are claimed to be subject to ellipsis. Lexical items with a phonological form, making the interpretation of the former possible, are available in the other compound word. These are called licensers. If the licensing compound word precedes the compound word involving ellipsis, we have to do with forward ellipsis. If the licensing compound word follows the elliptic one, we are dealing with backward ellipsis.
Sentence types and sentence modalities in German and Hungarian
This paper summarises the major results of a research project carried out at the Institute of German Studies of Loránd Eötvös University in 2002–2004. The aim of the project was a contrastive study of the systems of sentence types and the means of expressing sentence modality in German and Hungarian. The research focussed on some interrogative and imperative sentence types. Comparing the sentence types of the two languages, the author formulates a general organising principle, that of minimal marking, a version of the universal principle of linguistic economy actualised to sentence types. According to the principle of minimal marking, each sentence type is identified by the possible minimum of syntactic features.
Temporal features of cluttering and fast speech
Cluttering is a type of speech disorder affecting the fluency of speech and having a specific phonology similar to that of fast speech. In addition to accelerated articulation, cluttering is also characterised by too many repetitions, intellectual entanglement, monotony, and misapplication of grammatical forms. Therefore, it cannot simply be cured by slowing down the speaker’s speech rate. Our hypothesis is that whenever clutterers consciously try to slacken their pace, the change of overall tempo will mainly be implemented by an increased number and length of pauses; their speech will remain arrhythmic, poorly articulated, and monotonous.
An inductive analysis of free reference
A syntactic construction may require a special context without which it never occurs. Such a construction is the van, aki (‘there are/exist those/people who’) type subordination in Hungarian that is only attested in enumeration, i.e., as a member of a larger coordinated structure. The author discusses the van, aki construction as a case of free reference, presented in an inductive analysis based on examples.
A Nyelvőr hírei