Differentiation and cooperation in the social sciences
The author addresses the question of interdisciplinary studies based on his own experi-ence. Collecting together the results of his negative experiences confirms that the propor-tion of citations from other disciplines is very low in four examined fields (economics, law, political science and sociology). But the overall picture is coloured by positive examples: the theory of rational choice has broken the bounds of economics and play theory assumed an extra-disciplinary descriptive form. Nor is multivariable regression analysis of timelines for countries confined to economic phenomena. Furthermore, use of “soft” data has become acceptable in economics. The spread of the interdisciplinary is also shown in the way the system paradigm has become general as an approach. The author ends with three proposals: let us have a minimum conversancy with other disci-plines, support interdisciplinary work, and promote the emergence of a new type of “social scientist”.
The effects of tax rates and corruption on the labour market. A cross-sectional comparative analysis of the OECD countries
The study examines how tax rates, corruption and various labour-market institutions affect the relative sizes of various segments of the labour market – the unemployed, the employed, the self-employed, and those working in the hidden economy – in the devel-oped market economies. Regressive analyses of the OECD countries for 1995–2000 confirm that differences of tax rates and market institutions are joined by differences in the scale of corruption as important explanatory factors for relative size of the labour-market segments. With the hidden economy and self-employment, the coefficients of expressing the effect of tax rates themselves depend on the scale of corruption, as a manifestation of interaction between these.
Reinterpretation of the factors influencing capital imports into Hungary
The study sets out to identify the factors that have helped to sustain Hungary’s competi-tiveness on the capital market and influenced the arrival of capital investments in the country in the last decade and a half. An important group among the factors emphasized in the literature consists of the elements of the UNCTAD index of capital attraction, but the macro factors included in this do not cover the major decisive elements that have been central to attracting foreign investors into this region. These are privatization, fiscal policy, and the quality and structure of labour.
Melléklet - Innovációkutatás
Backwardness, catching up and innovation in the extra-European OECD countries
The article makes an international comparison of R and D and innovation performance in so-called developing countries: an increasingly heterogeneous set. Their best R and D performers are catching up with the top players in the world, but the majority have none too transparent national innovation systems, with only limited impacts on macroeco-nomic performance. The study concludes that an overall strong, mutual linkage exists between level of economic development on the one hand, and R and D and innovation performance on the other. Thus the increase in R and D spending seems important for improving conditions in this sector, and in the longer term, accelerating economic devel-opment.
Venture capital through European eyes. The development of venture and private-capital industry in Hungary and Central Eastern Europe
The venture and private-capital branch in Central Eastern Europe is less developed than in the EU 15, but has greater potentials. Hungary is gaining increasingly from its initial edge in the region, while steadily approaching the norms of the EU. On the positive side, this means growth and globalization of the capital bases, rising importance of takeovers, and greater variation in exits. On the negative side, firms in the early stage of develop-ment encounter also in the EU difficulties in financing, the persistent drawbacks of a small national market, and reduced appearance of exceptional yields.