This compilation is the third supplement to Canadian Studies on Hungarians, 1886-1986, published by the Canadian Plains Research Center, University of Regina (1987). The first supplement was published in Ottawa by the Microform Biblios (1992), the second by the International Hungarian Philological Society in Budapest (1995). In keeping with the previous bibliographies, Supplement 3 contains reference works, books and other monographs, research papers, university theses and review articles. It also includes lists of archival materials as well as periodicals and newspapers published in Canada since the beginning of this century. The items were culled from the national libraries and archives of Canada and Hungary, and information was gathered via personal communication with individual authors, scholars and community leaders. Publications in the physical and health sciences and in technology, with the exception of those listed in the "Biography" section, were not included.
This bibliography is divided into three major parts. Part I is devoted to Canadian publications on Hungary and Magyars in that country as well as elsewhere in the Hungarian diaspora. Part II contains entries pertaining to Hungarian Canadians, while Part III features short biographies of Hungarian-Canadian scholars, artists, community leaders and other public figures. The material is arranged by subject, under such headings as Reference and general works; History, government and politics; Economy, commerce and trade; Foreign relations; Public safety and social conditions; Minorities; Language; Literature; Religion; Immigration; Education; Memoirs; and Art, music and culture. The citations provide conventional bibliographic data such as author(s), title (in the vernacular if a foreign language, with English translation), publisher, date, pagination, and brief annotation. The volume is completed by a detailed index.
A note on archival sources
Official and semi-official records on Hungarians are held by several establishments in Hungary and Canada. The major repositories of documents are the national and regional archives, certain government ministries, public agencies, and ecclesiastic as well as educational institutions in both countries. For further information on archival material on the subject, the user should consult the part on Canadian archival holdings listed in the second part of this bibliography (Nos. 379-388) as well as the following publications:
Grenke, Arthur. "Archival Collections on Hungarian Canadians at the National Archives of Canada," HUNGARIAN STUDIES REVIEW, 17 (Spring, 1990): 3-12. For a summary of this information see the same author's "Hungarian Canadiana at the Archives," THE ARCHIVIST 18 no. 2 (July-September 1991): 12-13. ill., photos.
Miska, John. "Hungarian Resource Collections". HUNGARIAN STUDIES (Budapest) 4 no. 1 (1988): 118-123. An expanded version of this article has appeared in the same author's Literature of Hungarian-Canadians (Toronto: Rákóczi Foundation, 1991) pp. 41-50.
Dreisziger, N.F. and M.L. Kovacs. "A Note on Sources," the Appendix to N.F. Dreisziger, Struggle and Hope: The Hungarian-Canadian Experience (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982), pp. 232-35. See also this work's bibliography (pp. 236-39) as well as that of Carmela Patrias, Patriots and Proletarians: Politicizing Hungarian Immigrants in Interwar Canada (Kingston and Montreal: McGill Queen's University Press, 1994), pp. 287-309.
A. Archival Sources in Hungary
Official and semi-official records relating to Hungarian-Canadians are held mainly by the National Archives of Hungary, but other regional and ecclesiastical archives (such as those of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Esztergom and Kalocsa, and the archives of the Reformed Church of Hungary) also contain relevant material. Non-government holdings and literary archival material are collected by such establishments as National Széchényi Library, The Library of the National Academy of Sciences, and The Petőfi Literary Museum.
The National Archives of Hungary (NAH) is the national repository for official and semi-official documents. Perhaps the richest source of information on Hungarian Canadians and their community life are the records of the Hungarian consulate that existed in Winnipeg from 1927 to 1941. These records are part of the records of the Hungarian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, which also include the records of the Hungarian Consulate General of Montreal (which operated from 1922 to 1941), the records of the Ministry's bureau in charge of the affairs of Hungarians outside of Hungary, and the records of the Ministry's Press bureau. Other relevant record collections at NAH include the records of the Prime Minister's Office (pertaining mainly to the pre-1914 period), those of the Emigrants and Remigrants' Protection Bureau, and those of the Ministry of Agriculture - mainly documents relating to the emigration of agricultural labourers from Hungary, and the efforts to curb this out-migration. Some of the records of the World Federation of Hungarians (WFH) - in particular, those generated between 1928 and 1980 - are deposited in NAH, while those generated after 1990, and whatever records survive from the 1980s - many documents were destroyed in 1990 during the transition from Communist rule - are still housed in the WFH's headquarters in Budapest. Before 1989, the Institute of (Communist) Party History - later renamed the Institute for Political History - held extensive document collections which included some Ministry of the Interior records as well as memoirs of Hungarian communists living outside Hungary. Where this archival material will be housed now that this institute's funding has been cut, is unknown to us.
B. Archival Sources in Canada
In Canada, records on Hungary and Hungarians are held by the National Archives of Canada (NAC), the various provincial archives, and the archives of Hungarian church and community organizations and private collectors. For more details see Nos. 379-388.
1. National Archives of Canada (NAC)
This is the national repository for official and semi-official documents generated by federal government departments and other government agencies. NAC also houses Canada's most extensive collection of private manuscripts. The most voluminous documentation on Hungarian immigration and settlement in Canada can be found in the records of the government bureaus that handled immigration. These agencies used to exist within one or another of Canada's government departments: the Department of Agriculture; the Interior; and, from 1936 to 1949, Mines and Resources. At times, the part of Canada's bureaucracy dealing with immigration existed as a separate department: the Department of Immigration and Colonization (1917-1936), the Department of Citizenship and Immigration (1949-1966), and simply, the Department of Immigration, after 1966. Other parts of Canada's federal government have also, on occasion, produced documents relating to Hungarians in Canada and Canada's dealings with Hungary. These include the Governor General's Office (Canada's Governors General played important public and even political functions in the first half century of the country's existence), the Privy Council (whose records include the records of the Cabinet and its various committees), the Department of External Affairs (which deal with Hungary and matters concerning Hungarian aliens in Canada), the Department of Labour, and the Department of Justice - which was in charge of Canada's chief police and intelligence agency, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police [RCMP] - most of whose early records are also at NAC. Still another government-owned corporation whose records are at NAC is the Canadian National Railways - which at times was also involved in attracting immigrants to Canada and settling them here. Occasionally information on Hungary and Hungarian-Canadians can be also found in the papers of various Canadian politicians and other public figures, many of whose manuscripts are also held at NAC. One private corporation some of whose records are found also in this archival repository, and which had at times extensive dealings with Hungarian immigrants and settlers, is the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
From 1972 on, NAC has made an effort to collect archival material relating directly to the history of Canada's ethnocultural groups, including the Hungarian. Although the quest to gather documentary evidence relating to Hungarian-Canadian evolution is far from comprehensive, the Hungarian collection of NAC's Ethnic Archives Section has grown over the years and includes some very valuable record and private manuscript collections. These include the records of the Kanadai Magyar Újság which contain detailed information, among other things, on the establishment and short life of the Canadian Hungarian Federation (established in 1928, but ceased to function in the early 1930s). The Ethnic Archives Section also has most of the records of two other prominent (post-World War II) Hungarian-Canadian newspapers: the Magyar Élet and the Kanadai Magyarság; as well as the records of a few Hungarian-Canadian religious organizations, one of them being the Hungarian Reformed Church of Montreal.
2. Archival materials at provincial and regional archives.
The user should be able to find a comprehensive list of provincial archival holdings in Canadian Studies on Hungarians (1987), pp. 169-186. An exhaustive list of holdings in the most valuable Ontario repository is Jan Liebers: Inventory of the Multicultural History Society of Ontario. Papers. Series 69: Hungarian Canadian Papers, 1991. (F1405). See also entry nos. 379-388 in this publication.
3. Other sources
These include the private holdings of Hungarian-Canadian cultural, social, beneficial, educational and religious organizations. Addresses of these are provided by Markotic and Hromadiuk: Ethnic Directory of Canada, 2nd ed. There are several private collections throughout the country open to the hungarologist. The most significant of these is The Hungarian-Canadian Heritage Collection, maintained by George Demmer in Ottawa, which incorporates the Rev. Kálmán Tóth collection, the Endre Haraszti collection, as well as many others. (No. 388).
A Hungarian-Canadian Renaissance
Hungarian studies in Canada have flourished throughout the decades. They received a substantial boost as a result of the influx of the post-World War II "displaced persons" and the 1956 refugees. Both of these immigration streams included a great many Hungarians with high educational achievements. In the meantime important political developments were taking place in Canada. The final report of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism (1963-71) contained a volume on The Cultural Contribution of Other Ethnic Groups (1969). It recommended federal support for the maintenance of immigrant minority cultures in Canada. This suggestion was accepted by Ottawa. In 1972 a minister responsible for multiculturalism was appointed and the following year the Multicultural Directorate was established within the Department of the Secretary of State. In time, such multicultural policies were also adopted by several of Canada's provinces.
Encouraged by these developments, Hungarian-Canadian organizations redoubled efforts at cultural maintenance. Their perseverance led to the establishment of such cultural institutions as the Chair of Hungarian Studies at the University of Toronto, which was followed in time by the founding of the Hungarian Research Institute as an ancillary of the same university. The Hungarian-Canadian Authors' Association (headquartered at the time in Ottawa) and the Hungarian Studies Association of Canada (Toronto) were other products of this period, as were a number of literary societies, choirs, folk-dance groups and stage organizations in cities such as Vancouver, Winnipeg, Hamilton, London, Montreal and elsewhere. Several literary and cultural magazines also started publication, including the Canadian-American Review of Hungarian Studies (now Hungarian Studies Review) (Kingston and Toronto), the Tárogató (Vancouver) the Krónika and Tanú (Toronto), and the Magyar Népművészet Kanadában (Edmonton). The majority of these are still publishing today. According to our records, close to 200 newspapers, periodicals, cultural and denominational papers have been published in Canada from the beginning of this century (Nos. 416-507).
Hungarology has enjoyed wide interest among Canadian scholars and students. As shown in this bibliography, we have come across dozens of university graduate theses devoted to Hungary and Hungarians. The four volumes of the Canadian Studies on Hungarians contain more than 2,500 references, and this figure does not include a large number of relevant essays and review articles published in newspapers and inhouse forums.
Canada has been generous to its immigrant people. It has provided fertile soil for the cultural activities of immigrant Hungarians as well. The "Biography" section of this Supplement includes only a fraction of the Hungarian-Canadian university teachers, researchers in the scientific and technical fields who have made remarkable contributions to their professions. Furthermore, my book: Literature of Hungarian Canadians (Toronto, 1991) registers more than 90 Hungarian-Canadian authors of books of poetry, fiction and drama, published in Hungarian, English or French during the last four decades. This number does not include the ones, and there are quite a few of them, who published their work only in newspapers, periodicals and anthologies. The Hungarian Canadian Authors' Association has published eleven anthologies since 1968. It sponsored the publication of several private collections of poetry and fiction, and organized literary events throughout Canada. Since its inception, the Hungarian Studies Association of Canada has been participating in the annual conferences organized by the Canadian Learned Societies and published a series of papers by its members (Nos. 358-378).
Although in recent years the Hungarian-Canadian community's publishing output has not matched that of the 1970s and 1980s - owing to Canada's economic adversities and the resultant decline in government support for and diminishing public interest in matters of ethnicity - it is hoped that the field of Hungarology will continue to survive and Hungarian Canadians, along with the other cultural minorities of Canada, will continue to find ways of preserving their identity.
Finally, the compiler would like to thank a number of people for unearthing for him information on many the hard-to-find publications. Thanks are due to archivist Douglas Class of Glenbow Museum, Library and Archives, and to Gábor Chikány, General Secretary of the World Federation of Hungarians, for information about their institutions' holdings. I am also indebted to George Demmer of Ottawa for his assistance in obtaining details about his own collection. I am also grateful to the people listed in the "biography" section for providing me with lists of their publications and other autobiographical information. Special thanks go to Nándor Dreisziger for guiding this manuscript through the various stages of the editing and publishing processes.
Victoria, December 1998