Summary: In developed economies, the corporate sector accounts for 60-65% of GDP and thus has a strongly determinative role in a country’s economic output. The corporate sector can be divided into the groups of large enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises, i.e. SMEs; regarding both the number of employees and the GDP they produce SMEs make up half to two-thirds of modern economies.
An earlier research of ours, which we will review now only briefly, examined the relationship between the number of SMEs, their outcome and the number of their employees, and 16 selected indicators (measuring mostly competitiveness) in the EU 28. Our present research focuses on the changes in the three indicators in the period between 2005 and 2014, applying them, however, to SMEs vs. large enterprises and using a limited number of variables.
We shall review relevant post-2000 literature, including sources that define the selection of indicators. We will examine the correlation and regression relationships between the explanatory and outcome variables and go on to present our findings.
In summary: what are SMEs and large enterprises in the EU 28 are characterized by? We seek to find answers to three questions: 1) changes in the number of enterprises, 2) the value of GDP they create, 3) the number of people they employ (all of the three are specific indicators per 100,000 persons) and examine how these three values are impacted by institutional competitiveness, innovation, corruption, higher education and population numbers.
Kulcsszavak: EU, KKV, Nagyvállalat
Keywords: EU, SME, Large Enterprise
JEL kód: M21, O43, P51
Summary: Several surveys on entrepreneurship have been published, and most of them had the conclusion that in Hungary more attention should be given to enhancing young generation’s entrepreneurial spirits and to developing their competences and skills that would be needed for startup ventures.
In the first semester of the 2017-2018 at King Sigismund University a new startup course was launched. Its aim was to provide the sudents with the basic knowledge needed for startup ventures. This was fully in line with the strategic focus of the university on entrepreneurship, and innovation and it was built into the curriculum of our university of applied sciences.
In the planning and implementation of the course we worked together with a partner company, Design Terminal, that have a long experience of mentoring and developing startups. The core idea was to strengthen the competences and skills that enable the students to succesfully take the roadmap from the idea to realisation, and assisting the most succesful ones to get up to the implementation phase.
Naturally the course followed the lean startup methodology, and we went through customer development, the business model canvas, agile development, and all other importants areas of the startup methodology.
Our students formed four teams and business projects, all of them successfully accomplished the course and made a sales pitch to the „investment board”, consisting of the representatives of the University and Design Terminal.
Well known Hungarian startup experts took part in the course. They shared not only their knowledge but their expertise with the students. The coordination and consistency regarding the university curriculum were ensured by the professors of the university.
The startup course confirmed our hypothesis that it can be successfully built into the university curriculum, and the students found the knowledge and competences very useful for their future professional life.
Kulcsszavak: egyetemi oktatás, startup képzés, vállalkozói készségek
Keywords: Education, startup ventures, entrepreneurship
JEL kód: A22, L26, M13
Summary: A single employee will only be motivated if they believe their individual goals are in line with the company goals and the company also monitors their personal needs. That is why the flexible production systems are characterized by a high-commitment HR policy, including better job safety, performance-related payment and a more direct contact between managers and workers. Business reorganization failures are rooted basically in the inefficient interaction between people and not in technical problems. One of the basic aims of my research is to examine the management attitudes of the companies and institutions in Zala County whether they are willing to change to motivate the human factor and how the recognition influences the health and performance of the employee. The empirical research took place in Zala County, where a quantitative research was performed using questionnaires. The sample population that we calculated involved 508 people, of which 49% were male and 51% female. The survey represented the active workers in the county by gender. The results show that the time for rest is decreasing due to the employers' influence or our own expectations. Non-stop working may cause not only fatigue and burnout in worse cases but, unfortunately, also long-standing illnesses. Not only people in Zala County but also a large part of the Hungarian population would like to relax a lot quickly and feel the need to change, however, they cannot achieve it due to financial reasons or internal impulse. These factors influence the efficiency of the employee, which also has an impact on the success of the employer.
Kulcsszavak: emberi erőforrás, menedzsment, vezető
Keywords: human resource, management, leader
JEL kód: O15
Summary: The ethnic and cultural mosaic and the cultural dynamism are basic characteristics of the Balkan Peninsula. Due to these attributes, the region in question played a major role in the history of the European continent. Actually, the most of its territory is not under the authority of the European Union; even so, there is an increased attention towards the Balkans.Social and political economic trends are also dominant. Strong expansion of the Islam is emerged in the past decades in Albania, Bosnia and Hercegovina and Macedonia. This process affects the relationships with the EU, Serbia and Hungary as well. The reislamisation determines the social development, the political orientation and the general security of the next decades in the continent. In our study, we will examine the internal processes of each country and the external relations as well. Can we treat the question of development only as economic growth? Is there a common European and Balkan identity? What kind of connection is between institutional development and EU-enlargement? The countries of the Balkan Peninsula are close to the EU-membership, but there a lot of problem with the identity of these countries. A great deal of questions without suitable answers. The instability of the identity of the countries also contributed to the strengthening of Islam's appeal as an alternative element of identity. This approach requires the use of other sources (sociological analyses, literary elements) beside of the public and institutional statistics. Official statistics of the countries involved in our study, are of course the basic pattern of the data used.
Kulcsszavak: etnikai törésvonalak, identitás, reiszlamizáció, társadalmi fejlődés
Keywords: ethnic breaklines, identity, reislamisation, social development
JEL kód: Z12
Summary: Respecting and preserving our traditions means building bridges between our past and present. Like every other nation, we Hungarians have, inside us our culture, the wisdom and knowledge of writing as well as the experience of more than one thousand years of history. The basis of our traditions are the folk customs that have affected folk songs, folk dance our everyday clothing, as well as guiding behaviors. For centuries it has shaped the morality of people and the importance of belonging to the community. Nowadays, during the 2010-s, hundreds of folk dance and hand-crafting groups have been established around the country, with plenty of folk music groups playing their wonderful songs all around in Hungary. Festivals, which are new ways of expression, are also present in the lives of people who respect traditions and meet every year to feel that special atmosphere together. The capital of Hungary, Budapest, has been home to countless folk music and art events in the past decades, generating domestic tourism. Culture, gastronomy, economy, entertainment, healthcare, heritage, conferences: if we look only at our capital city, there are very few topics that do not relate to tourism. Today tourism is a phenomenon all over the world, and it is already interconnected with these events. The folk art and hand-craft markets are becoming more common, the quality and quantity of the performing art series is growing and the interest for longer and more interactive folk events has become stronger.
The aim of this study is to find out about the relationship between folk art events and the accommodation providers in Budapest, based on structured questionnaires and in-depth interviews. Currently, this market is still untapped, but it includes numerous opportunities that, in the future, could be a profitable corporation for all parties involved.
Kulcsszavak: népművészet, rendezvény, szállásszolgálttás, turizmus, hagyomány, Budapest
Keywords folk art, event, accomodation, tourism, traditional, Budapest
JEL kód: Z32, R11
Summary: The birth of the film is linked to France, especially to the name of the Lumiere brothers. At that time, there were only motion pictures what screened scenes from life. Later, after the turn up of the creatives, films became from a form of a festival treats to valued works during the First World War. This is a kind of entertainment that has completely changed people's cultural habits. But since the Lumiere brothers’ works, filmmaking has changed in many forms and qualities. Filmmaking in America is an integral part of the entertainment industry, while it remains in Europe as an expression of art, representing meaningful national values. Therefore, it is not just a simple entertainment, it is also an expression what use a specific language to treat a current issue of a nation. Hungarian cinematography is not necessarily a business idea but an integral part of the national circulation of the national culture. In the last few years Hungarian film works have received worldwide attention. Most of Hungarian films are supported by the government, so they have an influence on the indicators of deficiency and debts and also have a major role in national judgment. The increasing presence foreign co-productions and the 25% tax preference makes the film industry increasingly important. However, there are many dependable of making a film industry successful. To determine the present situation of the Hungarian film industry, cinematography and financing should be examined. It is a strategic sector, which have a huge influence on Hungary’s position in Europe. This presentation discusses the Hungarian film financing and compare its competitiveness with some of European countries. Using statistical methodology, a competitiveness map can be drawn comparing the European film industry, based on it some new prognosis can be suggested.
Kulcsszavak: magyar filmipar, filmfinanszírozás, versenyképesség, nemzeti kultúra
Keywords Hungarian cinematography, film financing, competitiveness, national culture
JEL kód: O49, F40, Z11