Summary: During the Second World War, the Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries were subordinated to the German war machinery. It must be emphasized that both agricultural and industrial production served to cover the war needs of Germany. As a result of war efforts, more and more agricultural products and raw materials were delivered from the countries of the region to the Third Reich without any recompensation. The Government of Germany did not want to comply its obligations not only for the shipping of industrial goods, but also to conceal the debts, which were accumulated in the clearing accounts. Before the outbreak of the Second World War the liabilities of the clearing accounts grew significantly by the Central, Eastern and Southeastern European countries towards Germany. The objective of my paper is to analyse the occupation costs in the Central, Eastern and Southeastern region, which can be perceived as neglected part of historic researches. Besides the debts, which were accumulated in the clearing accounts by the Third Reich, the occupation costs of the German army (Wehrmacht) were to be considered as serious burdens on the national economies of Central Eastern and Southeastern European countries. War expenditures, together with the amount of debts owed by Germany also increased substantially, which were financed by the issuing of great quantities of unbacked paper currency. This led to the acceleration of inflation rate, which aggravated the financial vulnerability in all countries of the region. As far as occupation costs were concerned emphasis must be given on the changes of state finances. With regard to the development trends of the 21st century, I think it is essential evaluate the occupation costs during the war years, which contributed to the economic backwardness of the countries in the region. Because of limited extent I would not like to deal in my essay with the economic development of Central, East and Southeast Europe and with the war losses and devastation of the Second World War.
Kulcsszavak: Kelet-Közép- és Délkelet-Európa, megszállási költségek, állami pénzügyek, infláció és hadikiadások
Keywords: Central, Eastern and Southeastern Europe, occupation costs and state finances, inflation and war expenditures
JEL kód: N24
Summary: The largest country of the Caribbean, Cuba, is an island in more than one sense. In geographic sense, the country covers the largest island of the Antilles and several other islands. In political sense, Cuba is among the few remaining socialist countries of the world still experimenting with central planning in the economy. Cuba is also a time capsule. Due to central planning in the economy and also to the American embargo, the country recalls the 1950s in many ways with its old American cars often powered by Soviet made engines and, according to anyone’s taste, its worn or patinated buildings. Looking at the transitions that started in the late 1980s in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union and taking place in a fast pace on historical scale, many expected fast changes in Cuba after the collapse of the Soviet Union. These changes, however, have not happened so far. At the same time, the contrast between the development of Cuba and other countries of the region has been increasing and the central planning model is loosing ground everywhere else as well. In theory, China still pursues socialism but for the next hundred years they still mainly rely on capitalist methods. In North Korea, people are starving and living in extreme poverty. Vietnam and other countries of Asia known as oriented towards socialism have either given up central planning already or, similarly to China, have been drifting away from it silently under the cover of a one party system. Cuba also implemented reforms after the collapse of the Soviet Union. A true transition, however, has not yet started. What lessons of past and ongoing transitions hold for Cuba? What these lessons say about the odds of a Cuban transition? How expectations of a Cuban transition evolved after the collapse of the Soviet Union? I will cover these topics on the following pages.
Kulcsszavak: Kuba, rendszerváltás, demokratizáció
Keywords: Cuba, transition, democratization
JEL kód: P20, N46, F51
Summary: Nigeria is the largest oil extractor and exporter in Africa. Its economy is vastly monocultural; petroleum products accounted for more than 90 percent of the country’s exports during the period under review. Some diversification can be observed after 2005, but mostly occasional trades; there is no leading sector or product. However, the country has alternative export products with comparative advantages. The country's exports and imports have been slowly increasing since the nineties, with significant growth beginning in 2005 and peaking in 2011. The substantially reduced amount of import of Nigerian oil by the USA, along with low oil prices, reduced oil revenues by nearly a third to 2015. The country maintained its positive foreign trade balance in 2015, but the surplus was at the lowest level this year during the examined period. Adapting to the declining income, imports after 2011 show a significant downturn. Between 2000 and 2010, Nigeria ranked as 120th or 121st on the Economic Complexity Index. After 2010, the complexity of the economy has gradually improved, ranking 103rd on the index with 33 products with an RCA higher than one by 2014. The Federal Government’s diversification strategy encompassed numerous export promotion measures, but they proved to be less effective than expected. The only truly effective stimulus was direct export promotion, which is in opposition with WTO norms, and application does not provide long-term benefits for domestic operators. It can be stated that, despite the declared intention of the Government, Nigeria has not started diversification, it cannot effectively use the petrodollars to develop globally competitive industries.
Kulcsszavak: export, exportösztönzés, diverzifikáció, import
Keywords: export, export promotion, import, diversification
JEL kód: F130, F140
Summary: Research and development was always a part of history: new results appear after long research and experiment. The history of science - especially of real sciences - is full with unsuccessful experiments that we would like to forget or regard them as secrets. GMO technologies appeared forst om the 1980s and nowdays they are used all over the world, experiments are made with them. The Hungarian Fundamental Act declares a GMO free agriculture. In this study I examine the question how the GMO free issue got into the Fundamental Act, what it really means in practice, what kind of consequences it has or it may have.
Kulcsszavak: GMO, alkotmányjog, kutatás
Keywords: GMO, fundamental law, research
JEL kód: Q18
Summary: The study examines sustainability performance of the Hungarian municipalities. Sustainability performance was defined as economic, social and environmental performance, according to the triple bottom line concept. The study used mixed methodology. To provide a deeper analysis of performance, in addition to the examination of related regulations and literature, environmental information systems of municipalities with more than 30 thousand inhabitants were thoroughly investigated. Through the introduction of the ban on planning operating deficit in 2013 short-time economic performance can be considered sustainable, however, uncovered replacement costs could cause problems in mid- and longterm. Most elements of social performance are prescribed by legislation, albeit due to insufficient funding their quality may fall below anticipated levels. In case of environmental performance, according to European Union regulations, infrastructural investments were realized on the field of waste water and waste management. Most municipalities examined, however, did not use information systems able to measure indicators quantifying the reduction of environmental footprints that were undertakings in the received developmental grants. Based on our results several problems and risks became visible but global sustainability performance of municipalities remains currently reasonable.
Kulcsszavak: önkormányzatok, fenntarthatóság, környezetmenedzsment rendszerek
Keywords: municipalities, sustainability, environmental management systems
JEL kód: Q01, H72
Summary: In the examination of the supporting system many aspects are discovered expressing that the invested funds are not provided to move ahead the quality of football and the international competitiveness. The conditional improvement of the infrastructure and the increasing number of participants are not stricktly attached in results of a better quality and professional knowledge. Tanks to the corporate tax supporting system, called TAO, a big amount of money is flowed into football that results positive and negative effects as well. Adventageously the number of players has grown which is important in popularization of health care and the infrastructure has been improved. Moreover the system shows example for health care which is specially significant factor in the life of young people. It is easier for them to accept an activity as a part of their life that has many positive effects, which is an indisputable aim besides of the results and success. In addition, the amateur sport clubs were benefited from support (STERBENZ, GÉCZI, 2012) and the remuneration of the coaches ware also organized better. On the other hand the sport organizations are not attempting to optimize their own sources of income thanks to the easily reachable supports by TAO. Furthermore it is conspicuous that the assistance is given in concealed circumstances for professional sport. Moreover because of the differences according to the political power in relationships results a big disproportion. Many businesses are willing to give assistance to sport organizations which are connected to one of the representatives potencially important. In spite of the fact that the corporate tax brings a huge amount of money into football, the current position and rules are obstacles in the way of professional performance and competitiveness of Hungarian football. So the main aim is limited to the popularization of the sport.
Kulcsszavak: magyar labdarúgás, TAO rendszer, egészségtudatos társadalom, utánpótlásnevelés
Keywords: Hungarian football, TAO system, health conscious society, education of rising generation
JEL kód: I18, Z23, I15
Summary: The aim of the study is to get a picture of the world's sports market, especially sports markets of China, US and India. Sport in globalisation is not only focused on physical activity but also has become part of the economy through the development of sports industry. Over the past three decades, the sports economy has undergone rapid growth. Demand for sports, sports goods, and sports events and to broadcast has increased dramatically. Today, we can say that its development is stronger than the annual economic growth of countries, so GDP can also have a measurable economic impact. There is a correlation between gross national income (GNI) and gross domestic product (GDP) and the performance of live sports, which has a positive impact on each other. Bernard and Busse (2004) The capital was invested in sports is also reflected in the sport's success, since after the Second World War, countries that won Olympic medals had previously had significant financial support for the sport. NEVILL ET AL. (2009) Sample and method: The sports industry share of world's market is presented on the basis of secondary research. The sample is the world's major power markets, which have prevailed in the GDP definition in the survey, looking at the smaller world market players in the sports industry. Results: The current status of sports economy in the world are visible, its evolution and the elements of sports industry, which is the driving force of the success. Another important area in the world market of sports economics is the future in the sport market, how it will shape the world economy in the future, as economic changes cannot escape this area either. In the first part of the study, sport is presented as an economic factor, its impact on globalization, its indicators that drive and influence and growth sports industry, sports economy. In the second part, the emergence of the great powers of the world and of the smaller in the sports industry is presented through its impact on GDP. Conclusion: The study points out that sports industry also contributes significantly to the national economy, as well as a sporting sector as a nation-pulling sector.
Kulcsszavak: sportgazdaság, világpiac, versenyképesség, sportipar
Keywords: sports economy, world market, competitiveness, sports industry
JEL kód: M14