Summary: There is an increasing demand to explore the characteristics of ageing due to the wider lifespan and the growing ratio of the elder people in the western societies. Although aging is a natural part of life, its judgement is not obvious. The age discrimination concerning ageing employees begins at 45 and it is getting stronger as time goes on. This alludes to the inconsistency of the definition of ageing in our society. According to WHO’s division the old age begins at age of 60, what is strongly connected to the individual’s active economical performance. There is also inconsistency in the judgement of scientific approach of ageing. The traditional approaches emphasise the decline and the losses in old age. Oppositely, according to the modern approaches people are biopsycho-social units, so the process of aging can be written by multidimensional factors. The old age is the last period of the lifelong developmental process, in which the characteristics of the general human development can be discovered, and due to everybody’s own aging patterns significant individual differences occur as well. In the labour market ageing goes hand in hand mostly with unfavourable stereotypes, but they are not proven at all, especially among white collar workers. With our summarising presentation we volunteer to present the characteristics of ageing employees in connection with work performance variety, in order to increase a more objective judgement of this target group.
Kulcsszavak: idősödés, időskori változás, fejlődés, életkori sztereotípiák, munkaerőpiaci diszkrimináció
Keywords: ageing, age related changes, development, age related stereotypes, labour market discrimination
JEL kód: J24
Summary: Nowadays our focus is on research, development and innovation (RDI) because the RDI determine fundamentally the competitiveness of the organization, the national economy, the economic union as well as the continent. The 2008 economic crisis has highlighted that if we continue our long-term business cycle, we are faced with a gradual decline. The main goal of Europe 2020, the Smart, sustainable and inclusive growth strategy is to get out of the crisis, through create jobs and raise living standards. For the 2014-2020 period the European Union had launched the Horizon 2020 which is the pillar of Innovation Union Framework Program has larger budget than ever before, with the main objective of promote RDI. The Horizon 2020 has 3 main pillars, namely ‘Excellent science’, ‘Industrial leadership’ and ‘Societal Challenges’. The pillar ‘Excellent science’ aims to develope researchers relations and widening their knowledge, particularly because the outcomes of RDI - which are in the focus of the 2nd and 3rd pillars - depend on the kind and quantity of human resources too. The comprehensive study presents RDI data of the European Union and Hungary, as allocated to RDI, the sectoral distribution of expenses and the number of employees working with the research, development and innovation. The study pays special attention to particularities and trends of the agricultural labor market special attention to the agriculture sector thanks to the time-series data collected by the Central Statistical Office. During the examination of the Hungarian agricultural RDI labor market data is revealed including the number of researchers at distribution of the groups of ages, of academic degrees and titles of publications and their number of publication results. In the document, secondary time-series data collected mainly by the Central Statistical Office have been analysed with the methods of the descriptive statistics.
Kulcsszavak: Europa 2020, Horizont 2020, KFI ráfordítások, kutatói állomány, agrárágazat, tudományos teljesítmény
Keywords: Europe 2020, Horizon 2020, cost of RDI, staff of researcher, agricultural sector, scientific achievement
JEL kód: J43
Summary: The primary goal of the knowledge to be acquired in the course of Hungarian higher level vocational training is the acquisition of practical or demand-driven knowledge, i.e. of the required competences. On the labour market, competence means the worker’s knowledge required for work, their ability required to perform the tasks. Thus, the competences assigned to occupations, job titles and vocational qualifications determine the expected requirements from the workers. In the light of the above, by the end of the training programme - and as a result of which - students in higher level vocational training must attain the level of active and independent activity. This demands a complete paradigm shift in higher education. The transition from the previous input and process control to the training and output requirements (KKK) type of control meant a significant change in the regulation of the Hungarian higher education. Another important task is to comply with the dual output requirements: at all output levels, higher education institutions should provide on the one hand labour market employment for the graduates, on the other hand the possibility of continuing their studies. The third challenge that must be met by higher education institutions is the strengthening of the mobility of the released labour force, thereby the improvement of the efficiency of the European labour market. In this study - relying on primary and secondary research results - we wish to show what significance is given to the labour market requirements appearing in the training and output requirements of the economic higher level vocational training. The so called „Grounded Theory” served as the basis for the qualitative research, whereas the quantitative research was based on our questionnaire survey conducted among business leaders.
Kulcsszavak: kompetenciák, készségek, képességek, tudásmenedzsment, kkv-k, vezető, vállalkozó, munkaerő-piac, emberi erőforrás, képzés, tacit, explicit tudás, gazdasági felsőfokú szakképzés
Keywords: competences, skills, abilities, knowledge management, SME-s, leader, entrepreneur, labour market, human recourse, education, training, tacit, explicit knowledge, economical higher-level vocational training
JEL kód: A23
Summary: The financial crisis of 2008 drew the attention of society and education to the fact that the Hungarian population - including both the younger and the older generation - has a low level of financial literacy, which is proven by a number of surveys. Previous research scrutinized secondary school students, undergraduates in tertiary education as well as entire families and regions. The improvement of the financial literacy of young people is in the interest of our society since in order to be able to avoid unforeseen economic pitfalls they should have at least some basic financial knowledge and skills. An ideal field where students may become familiar with financial matters is the secondary school where they can learn about the basic financial concepts and phenomena since they will be able to make good decisions with due consideration. This paper examines the secondary school students of a rural town. Focus is placed on the extent to which they can decide the veracity of statements or how precisely they can define certain financial terms. We also considered whether they had previously dealt with such topics and what factors might have influenced their correct responses.
Kulcsszavak: pénzügyi kultúra, oktatás, középiskolák
Keywords: financial culture, education
JEL kód: I2, I25
Summary: The aim of this paper is on one hand to explore the different approaches to Public relations and propaganda. Further aim is to conceptualize and follow the reasons of positive and negative interpretations and areas of applicability of PR and propaganda. The method is to analyse the famous campaigns of pioneer and significant player of public relations and propaganda: Edward Bernays and other cases. The debate on the concept of persuasive communication and propaganda, as well as the relationship of these two with the public relations practice is an important issue to the professionals, because it is at the heart of their role in the society, and at the heart of their essential legitimacy in public opinion. The original meaning of the word of propaganda is a way of organizational communication. Its aim is to win the audience, spreading certain views and influence the recipient’s opinion. As supporters of wars and dictators / dictatorships applied the propaganda for persuasion about their unethical / distorted views, so the propaganda became a negative propaganda concept, which is still often identified with. It shows that the perception of propaganda is complex in its nature; many factors and views must be taken into consideration for the understanding. The study reviews the history of the development interpretations and definitions of propaganda. Examples for right and bad application will be analysed. At the end of the study it can be formulated the conclusion related to why and how has changed the meaning of propaganda and public relations and why become necessary to distinguish the two concepts and activities for the professionals. We will get answer for the contradiction inherent in the title: whether good or bad, and ugly have to be seen the public relations and propaganda?
Kulcsszavak: Public Relations, Propaganda, etikai aspektus, jelentésmódosulás
Keywords: Public Relations, Propaganda, ethical aspects, amended meanings
JEL kód: M3, M39