Abstract : One of the characteristic features of the growing global economy, especially in corporate decision making, is the increasing importance of the localization that consolidates the future of the areas with less favourable conditions. To moderate the external economic dependence, namely the disproportionate prevalence of exogenous resources there are a number of alternative solutions, however, the real change requires an economic paradigm shift. The success of the regional and settlement development can be found in local economic development that fits local conditions. The emphasis of environmental sustainability, collaborations between municipalities, community development and local identity, beyond the economic dimension, play a very important role, too. During our research we analysed and mapped good practices which are organised along the principles mentioned above in the peripheral, marginalized, and deprivated areas of the Northern Great Plain region of Hungary. The only question is whether rural areas may break out of the devilish circle, and, if so, how can it be possible?
Kulcsszavak: Észak-Alföld, területi egyenlőtlenségek, hátrányos helyzet, vidéki fenntarthatóság, településfejlesztés
Keywords: Norther Great Plain, territorial disparities, settlement development, less favourable position, rural sustainability
JEL kód: R11, R12
Abstract: The World War I. had got serious economic and political consequences on the Central and Eastern European States. By the end of 1918 the economies of the whole region were on the collapse. The lack of fuel and food supply, the physical destruction, the losses in the human resources, the financial chaos, the devaluation of national currencies and current account deficit problems and last the instability occurred in some countries (see Hungary and Poland) aggravated the situation of the Central and Eastern European countries. The endeavour of my essay is to evaluate the economic and political consequences of World War I. in Central and Eastern Europe. Emphasis will be given not only on the problems, which were caused by the territorial changes, but also on the economic difficulties in the region, such as the impacts of damages of the war and inflation in the new States, which were created after the collapse of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. However Bulgaria wasn’t part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy after ceasing of the Ottoman regime, the Balkan country had got strong economic relations with the Dual Monarchy. The conventional economic theories always emphasize the negative impacts of inflation on the national economies. But new researches pointed out the role of short-term inflation in the economic growth and stabilisation. After the period of World War I. inflation was to be understood as a symptom and a therapy. In Central and Eastern Europe inflation not only bridged the main problems of the general lack of capital and internal capital accumulation, but also contributed to restore the destroyed production capacities, and thus finally caused an artificial economic growth in the states of the region. In my research I focused on analysing the impacts of inflation in seven Central and Eastern European countries (Austria, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Romania Czechoslovakia and Poland). It must be stated that inflation had got negative effects on the whole region, because major part of the capital didn’t promote the creation of productive companies but flew into speculative investments and didn’t solve the fundamental economic structural problems of Central and Eastern European countries such as general lack of capital and low internal capital accumulation. As far as inflation was concerned its impacts on the society were harmful, which caused decrease both in the real wages and standard of living of the middle class. Because of limited extent I didn’t deal in my essay with the evaluation of domestic policy issues in Central and Eastern European countries.
Kulcsszavak: első világháború, politikai és gazdasági következmények Közép-Kelet-Európában, inflációs konjunktúra
Keywords: World War I., political and economic consequences in Central and Eastern Europe, inflation boom
JEL kód: N14
Abstract: Since there’s a race for customers on the market of the consumer goods, cities of the 21st century compete for the inhabitants, tourists, investors and companies. In this competition the image and good reputation of the city, their conscious framing are one of the biggest feat of arms. The economy of the dynamically developing city, Győr is based after several system changes on the automobile industry. Its main leg is the important international company with headquarter in Győr since 1993, the Audi Hungaria Motor Kft. (AHM). During our research by asking the tourists, one of the main stakeholders of the city, we were trying to figure out, how the effect of the AHM on the reputation, tourism and catering industry of the city is. According to the above mentioned, the main goal of the study is after setting out the theoretical background to bring out how the company influences the headquarter city’s reputation and tourism, based on the point of view of the tourist experts, who took part in the questionnaire survey as tourists visiting the city. Beside assuming the opinions we were testing our hypothesis - the correlation between the reputation of the AHM and the city of Győr can be proved in the tourism branch as well - with the analytic presentation of the quantitative, measurable tourism statistics of the county seat of the Kisalföld.
Kulcsszavak: hírnév, imázs, stakeholder, AHM, Győr városa, turizmus
Keywords: reputation, image, stakeholder, AHM, city of Győr, tourism
JEL kód: M14
Abstract: Nowadays with the development of internet and the proliferation of mobile technologies, many platforms have emerged, which help the easy and quick communication and information providing. Many virtual markets were created and that have totally changed the existing distribution methods. The new service providers - of course for an extra fee - make it easy for supply and demand to find each other. The "sharing economy" appeared in the accommodation services - after the Western metropolises - also in Budapest where a significant number of homes offered through Airbnb. This article characterises this new phenomenon and investigates the effects on traditional accommodation. After a brief overview of international theory and practice, the results of a survey (which was made in one of the districts of Budapest) and some personal interviews will provide the background. The following questions to be answered: How the sharing economy works and what is it? What kind of platforms and role players appeared in the accommodation service? In what way this new phenomenon affects the operation of the already existing hotels and other accommodation units? Under what conditions does the sharing economy compete on the hotel market? The results show that the number of Airbnb accommodations in Budapest exponentially increases, which are mostly run by highly educated persons. The clientele is not the youngest one, and the price is not the main attraction for them when choosing a place to stay on their holidays. Mostly the low quality traditional hotels, boarding houses, hostels and tourist hotels feel the suction effect of the new role players. Around 75-80% of Airbnb accommodations are operating illegally, which brings them significant market advantages by tax avoidance. The hotels and some associations resent the disproportionate nature of such competitive conditions.
Kulcsszavak: sharing economy, AirBnB, szálloda, versenyfeltételek, gazdasági hatások
Keywords: sharing economy, AirBnB, hotel, competitive conditions, economic effects
JEL kód: M13
Abstract: In Hungary civil divorce is possible since the Marriage Act of 1894. Before this date churches handled this question according to their own internal law, there was no state rule for it. The own laws of churches did not deal with marriage property right, we can find some examples for it only in some city laws of the Middle Ages. The question was reregulated in the Family Law of 1952 that has been significantly modified before the new Civil Code of 2013 came into force. After the ”system change” several family companies were based that were regulated upon the rules of the Company Act. The legislater did not create separate rules for companies owned by married couples, this case was defined in the jurisdiction. The new Civil Code handles company law and marriage law in one act, but in separate books of the act. In the book handling company law there are regulations at some paragraphs about the common owned company in case of a divorce. In this article I examine how this regulation changes the practice of the last decade in jurisdiction.
Kulcsszavak: házassági vagyonjog, új Ptk., válás, családi cég, házastársi közös vagyon
Keywords: marriage property right, new Civil Code, divorce, family company, common property of married couple
JEL kód: K36
Abstract: Confidence plays a particularly important role in today’s turbulent economic environment. Economic crisis not only has an impact on individuals but also it determines the confidence sentiment of businesses and the whole of society. Confidence is relevant in situations where the relationship of partners entails risks. It influences quality, competitiveness and efficiency within a firm. Moreover, nowadays it may prevail over theories based on rational decision-making in traditional economics. Business leaders have a vital role in establishing, maintaining and incorporating confidence in the corporate structure. Outside firm confidence serves as a basis for co-operation. The management’s attitude to confidence can influence the efficient operation of firms in both positive and negative ways. Therefore, teaching confidence as a deeply integrated part of corporate governance is a key in leadership development programmes. The management’s attitude to confidence can influence the efficient operation of firms in both positive and negative ways. Therefore, teaching confidence as a deeply integrated part of corporate governance is a key in leadership development programmes. Alongside building confidence within the company, outside firm confidence, which is regarded as the basis for co-operation, must be accounted for. On the whole, it can be said that the confidence-based co-operation of stakeholders and stockholders constituting a firm largely determines the firm’s operation and response capacity, and thus its cost management and competitiveness. The SME sector behaves similarly to individual, retail or private investor sectors characterised by faithbased confidence. Faith in the future and growth is of great importance since it may result in a more transparent corporate structure, a heightened sense of responsibility and stronger co-operation between economic operators. This study aims at clarifying the concept, and providing a theoretical overview of confidence, as well as investigating its macro-economic impact on the lending activity of the SME sector, based on the results of primary research.
Kulcsszavak: bizalom, finanszírozás, kis-és középvállalkozás, pénzügyi döntések
Keywords: confidence, financing, SME’s, financing decisions
JEL kód: G00, G30, M1
Abstract: Our research aims to examine to what extent the sustainability and reverse logistics in supply chain types described in Hungarian and international literature can be found in Hungarian enterprises, what similarities and differences can be observed, including the reasons, and which supply chain types are competitive in our circumstances and why. Based on theoretical knowledge and the results of our research, proposals will be elaborated about the actions to be taken in our circumstances to make the supply chains of Hungarian enterprises more successful from the aspects of member cooperation and information flow. The study will be based on questionnaires and deep interviews. Hungarian lands has really good features for vegetable and fruit growing, however in the last two decades the structure of producing has modified a lot. Within the agriculture, the vegetable and fruit producing provide one of the main income, in the hungarian export structure. Therefore it is necessary to improve this sector more then we did it before. Nowadays the demand for quality products is increasing, the open field drained systems also getting bigger role. The market experiences and researchments highlight the fact, that the vegetable and food production, with certain improvements in efficiency, quality can succeed easily in the battle of markets between countries. Considering the external environment impacts, focusing on improving management of the food supply chains, taking care of environment footprints. These subjects above must be a main aims of the industry. The purpose of the study case is: highlight the specific features of the domestic IQF food market, revealing the industry supply chain management issues that companies face time by time. Study and reveal the issues of logistics, specificly in this field, improving opportunities, and giving the reader a summary of the market.
Kulcsszavak: ellátási lánc, zöld logisztika, gyorsfagyasztott élelmiszergyártás
Keywords: Supply Chain, Green Logistics, IQF food market
JEL kód: Q57
Abstract: The goal of the paper is to give an insight to and make a comparison between the agricultural co-operative systems of Denmark, - a success story of the family based farming even in the frames of the EU, - and of the Republic of Korea (South Korea), one of the Asian newly industrialized economies. The author tries to find the answer to the question: how, and by which solutions the farmers can work successfully in these two countries which are quite different from each other in terms of their historical background and economic environment. However, the basic points show many similarities: relatively small, fragmented farmlands and livestock, relatively big number of farmers who are crop or livestock producers on individual or family basis. In all probability they could never meet the standards of efficiency and international competitiveness. Therefore the majority of farmers in both countries establishes and joined the agricultural co-operatives. The farmers work on their own lands while cooperatives provide them with a range of advantageous services (consultancy, crop processing, sales and marketing, banking services, etc.) The author believes that the examination of this issue may serve with adaptable experiences and useful ideas in Hungary as well which may have positive influence on the future of the Hungarian family based farming and co-operative type collaboration.
Kulcsszavak: Agrárgazdaság, szövetkezetek, Dánia, Dél-Korea
Keywords: Agricultural Markets and Marketing, Cooperatives, Agribusiness
JEL kód: Q13