Biomass is seen as an economically viable and environmentally friendly solution to energy generation. Biomass is a financially viable investment as well as being environmentally friendly. The development and implementation of biomass technologies could bring many environmental, energetically and economic benefits, solving important problems such as waste disposal and renewable energy supply. The different countries clearly have chosen very different approaches in developing and deploying various bio–energy options. Partly this is caused by the natural conditions (type of resources and crops, climate) and the structure of the energy system, and also by the specific political priorities linked to the agricultural and forestry sectors in those countries. Romania has a significant potential in organic waste, including waste generated in forestry sector, agro–food industry or municipal biodegradable wastes. Biomass is an emerging renewable fuel that can help to heat homes and buildings at lower impact to the environment and lower costs than fossil fuels. The fuel (usually in the form of biomass pellets) is made from sustainable materials, such as wood, which is easily replaced and in abundance, at a relatively cheap price. As people are becoming more and more conscious about their individual impact on the environment and looking into greener, more efficient alternatives, biomass is slowly becoming one of the nation’s favorite renewable heat technologies. Actually, sawdust as by–product from wood sawing process, doesn’t have much application because of its low burning efficient. However, by pressing the saw dust into pellets, it becomes a kind of high quality biofuel product – sawdust pellets or wood pellets.
The topicality of the subject has been shown by the fact that the number of food supplements has been increasing. These products are different from the traditional food products and the risks associated with them may also differ from the traditional food risks. Meanwhile, in the market customers are given significant amounts of information about food supplements, but this information sometimes can be misleading and may influence consumer habits. The aim of my research therefore is to examine the consumption patterns of adult food supplements users, highlighting some of the determinants of food safety, such as quality, availability of information and risks. Within the framework of primary research, focus group interviews were conducted and a survey was also used. Based on both the focus group and the survey results, it can be seen that the uses of food supplements are judged differently by the respondents. In data processing, factor- and cluster analysis were used to segment consumers based upon how they consider the use of food supplements. Four homogenous groups were identified among the respondents and the research examined which consumer characteristics were applicable to each group.
Small and medium-sized enterprises became relevant actors of the economy due not only to their role in the employment but also in producing GDP and export products. Within the sector, family enterprises constitute ¾ of the enterprises in Europe, their significance is therefore decisive. In our publication, we present the career path of SoReCa Ltd., family enterprise acting in the catering industry. Having operated for 10 years, the company’s portfolio covers child nutrition, company canteens as well as event catering. In our research, we used the corporate lifecycle model of Adizes which was supplemented by corporate medical records, as a useful practical tool. By these medical records, we may explore SoReCa lifecycle stages, their main features, and the signs of crisis, evolution or revolution. These analyses may help the management in the decision process and may form successful management tools in establishing new strategy if needed. We show that among management roles - integrator role - is the key role of organizations in Prime ages.
It can be observed in more and more fields of science that the results of other disciplines are utilised in order to achieve new results; it is true for nature conservation as well. Global climate change is to be considered as one of the most thoroughly studied topic; scientists pay special attention to the responses given by species and communities to climate change. In case of field examinations the accuracy of samplings and measurements is of key importance. Often solely estimated data is available which deteriorates the accuracy of the assessment. The health status of forests is usually determined by visual observations that imply errors due to human subjectivity. In this examination we surveyed the health status of a protected sessile oak stock within the Botanical Garden of Szent István University in Gödöllő by using not only conventional methods but also instrumental measurements. We have used FAKOPP 3D Acoustic Tomograph. It is an instrument developed in Hungary that is able to determine – in percentage – the extent of deterioration in tree trunks. The method of measurement is the following: this instrument measures the speed of sound propagation in the tree matter, since rotten and healthy tissues conduct sound differently. Prior to the examination we surmised that a predominantly healthy stock would be examined. Nevertheless, instrumental measurements proved that the trees of this stock are considerably decayed; therefore constant instrumental monitoring is required. We found that the extent of decomposition was the most significant in the lowest measurement level (i.e. 40 cm – Layer 1) and it steadily decreased in the higher regions.
Ageing and sustainability are key problems of modern societies. Firstly increasing proportion of elderly people in population is becoming more important both for society and economy. Economy takes into account needs of old people as of consumers remarkable. Secondly sustainable development (SD) seems to be solution to many of global problems. However SD is contested but implementation is indispensable. Role of elderly is not negligible in it. Thirdly food consumption, as one of three essential needs, has exceptional importance in our days not only in the history. The question is how to connect sustainability, food consumption and healthy nutrition. In this case sustainability means to define criteria of foods which are better in terms of sustainability. The data is necessary for the amount of food consumed by older people. Data in territorial level cause a few problems to solve. Healthy nutrition is well known and it is compared to criteria of sustainability. Although all aspects cannot be outlined in this paper but new ideas, approaches are hopefully given.
In the summer of 2014 at the Maintenance Division of Paks Nuclear Power Plant Ltd. in Hungary there was an opportunity to take part in the preparatory work a new and innovative project for introduction. This is a charge-planner software support using the tests related the new fuel. The necessary calculations were completed and after obtaining the results the conclusion is that the actual 12 month operating period – the so-called campaign length – can be increased to 15 months, by using and shuffling the new fuel with higher enrichment, and by loading six fuel assemblies with gadolinium oxide into the unit. Conclusion is the new Gd-2_4.7 fuel initial expectations were met and managed to find a favorable average enrichment not only considering nuclear physics, but also economic, risk management, material structure and security points of view as well. Testing can be started in the summer of 2015, and the fuel can be loaded into Unit 3 for a test period of 365 days.
According to the EU Council Directive 2001/111/EC, related to certain sugars intended for human consumption, a great attention is paid to color in sugar. On the other hand, the non-sucrose compounds having intensive color tend to build into the sucrose crystals. Since Serbia has to work on the new rules concerned sugar quality and harmonization with EU standards, some investigations on sugar crystals are carried out at the request of some sugar factories. Investigations are carried out on sugar crystal size dependence on sugar color and on dissolution rate of different sugar crystal size fractions with the aim to create new sugar products. In this study, sugar samples with different sugar color are divided into 5 fractions by crystal size, defining size distributions. In each fraction the color in solution and the type of color are measured, as well as other relevant physico-chemical parameters. The conclusion is that the sugar color type depends on the crystal size, but sugar crystal solution is not dependent on crystal size except a fraction smaller than 200 μm, which has 30-75% higher sugar color in solution than the other crystal size fractions.
The paper describes the problems of the operation of chain wheels of armoured face conveyors and the related assurance of the required wear resistance. An analysis of the current methods of manufacturing the chain wheels used in armoured face conveyors has also been performed. It has been found that a dynamic surface treatment can be used in the process of manufacture of these elements. As a part of the study, the results of wear tests for the standard and modernized variants of chain barrels have been presented, which confirmed the validity of the changes made in the process.
Cookies are a popular confectionery product with a unique texture and taste, long shelf life and a relatively cheap price; therefore, it is a widespread snack among people of all generations. Nevertheless, cookies are usually made of wheat flour and most formulations are highly caloric and have a low fiber content. Soy flour is an excellent source of proteins, fibers, vitamins and minerals and it is being considered as a great supplement to wheat flour because it increases nutritive characteristics of the final product. By their digestibility and amino acid content, soy proteins are very similar to proteins derived from animals. They also contain many essential amino acids, which are deficient in most of the cereals. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of soy flour on quality of cookies. Wheat flour was supplemented with 35% of soy flour (full-fat toasted, low-fat toasted, defatted lightly toasted, toasted and soy protein concentrate). The supplementation of wheat flour with soy flour had affected nutritive value and sensory characteristics of cookies.
The Web of Things (WoT) is slowly gaining grounds and through the properties of barcodes, QR codes, RFID, active sensors and IPv6, objects are fitted with some form of readability and traceability. People are becoming part of digital global network driven by personal interests. The feeling being part of a community and the constant drive of getting connected from real life finds it continuation in digital networks. This paper investigates the concepts of the internet of things from the aspect of the autonomous mobile robots with an overview of the performances of the currently available database management systems.
A smart (or liveable) city is a settlement which is able to utilize the available technological possibilities and particularly the infocommunication devices in an innovative way in order to develop a sustainable environment. A sustainable urban environment is increasingly necessary since the portion of urban population is constantly growing. This might require the rethinking of the development of traffic in the city as well. In 2015 a survey was conducted in Szeged related to the ongoing smart city project. The main goal of the survey was to get information about the transportation habits, opinions and expectations of the city residents. This paper summarizes some of the interesting results of the research in the field of public transport, bicycling, car transport, parking and walking. The research methods used were descriptive statistics, measuring relationship between variables and hypothesis testing. The results can also be the base of a later similar survey, where the possible financial consequences of the expectations are also communicated to the participants.
Both grape and wine production have several useful by-products what have been discovered more and more due their important positive health effects in the last decades. The grape seed is one of them because its high antioxidant power. On the other hand, the marc is also more and more widely evaluated because of its high amount and useful chemical components. However, the grape berries what arise during cluster or grape thinning are rarely evaluated. Their positive properties and high antioxidant activity has been well known for a long time but their utilization is very rare. It is known as verjus, that is known from its sour taste as souring agent, but in Hungary it is not known. In our research we have evaluated six grape varieties in the Tokaj region during grape maturing in three stages of veraison. Clusters were collected and berries were removed from the pedicles manually and the chemical composition of whole berries, separated seeds and peel and flesh were analysed. Furthermore, dried berry parts were grinded and added to wheat flour and biscuits made from them were also analysed both chemically and sensory. We found that their use can result antioxidant rich and tasty bakery products.