Abstract: Im Alten Testament begegnet das Substantiv ša¯loˆm insgesamt 273-mal, und gilt als wichtiger theologischer Begriff in vielen Kontexten. Das hebräische Wort ša¯loˆm ist verschiedentlich Gegenstand von Untersuchungen in der alttestamentlichen Wissenschaft. Vorwiegend findet man philologische und biblisch-theologische Studien, welche die Etymologie und den Inhalt des Begriffs behandeln. Untersuchungen aber, die den hebräischen ša¯loˆm- Begriff aus der Perspektive der alttestamentlichen Anthropologie besprechen, stehen noch aus. Die relevanten Monographien und Studien im Bereich der alttestamentlichen Anthropologie behandeln diesen Begriff nur sehr marginal, oder gar nicht. Die vorliegende Studie stellt die Frage, ob und inwiefern ša¯loˆm als anthropologischer Grundbegriff betrachtet werden kann, und versucht es in den heutigen anthropologischen Diskurs über den ’ganzen Menschen’ einzubringen. Unsere Analyse hofft aufgewiesen zu haben, welche Bedeutung ša¯loˆm auf der vitalen, personalen, sozialen und transzendentalen Ebene der menschlichen Existenz im alttestamentlichen Denken besitzt.
Abstract: Beim Thema »Kirche« können wir immer eine ganze Reihe von möglichen Perspektiven einnehmen, deren Zusammenfügung in ein einzelnes Bild stets einen besonderen Reiz hat. So kommen multiperspektivisch beim Thema »Kirche« dogmatische, soziologische und historische Perspektiven auf die evangelische Kirche zusammen. Im Folgenden präsentiere ich zuerst einige Impulse aus der Soziologie (1.), dann werde ich einige ekklesiologische Konsequenzen aus der Eigenart der Moderne bzw. Postmoderne thematisiert (2.). Daran anschließend werde ich auf der Basis klassischer reformatorischer Ekklesiologie einige weitere dogmatische Überlegungen zum Verständnis der Kirche anknüpfen (3.).
Abstract: As in all religions, virtues played an important role for the ancient Greeks. They established the quality of life, culture and religion. Although virtues were questionable in Greek mythology because the gods were free from complying with virtues (or morals) since they stood above human norms, for humans they were still a measure of a successful or unsuccessful, happy or unhappy, meaningful or meaningless life. Moreover, they were also important for the world beyond the grave because virtues acquired in this life had the significance of bringing salvation. Therefore, there are many epitaphs in the so-called Greek eschatology recording the virtues of the dead person because that is what can entitle the dead person to ask for or to anticipate a good position or happy place for his soul in the afterlife. And Greek virtues had a wide range. In Paul’s eschatology, which was confronted especially with the Greek belief in afterlife, virtues and good deeds have no salvific role. Salvation is given by grace through the sacrifice of Christ and faith in him. However, virtues still matter in this life as fruits of faith, and therefore they are important because they confirm the authenticity of faith and Christian life.
Abstract: Why was not God’s leadership sufficient for the chosen people? Was the relationship between Yahweh and the people supported or hindered by an earthly leader? The notion of leadership was no stranger to the Old Testament. Initially, in patriarchal communities, the head of the family was the leader, he made decisions, judgments, he performed the sacred events. Later God sent judges to restore the divine order, as a recurring motif in the judges’ stories was that the people turned away from Yahweh, the enemy subjugated them, the people cried out to God, and finally Yahweh sent the judge to bring peace (ša¯loˆm). As history progressed, the introduction of a monarchical form of state became inevitable. According to biblical accounts, however, some kings were unable to use their office well, they often abused their power. To remedy this, God set up prophets who were in a close relationship with Him. Their task was diverse: military and spiritual leadership, policy advice, but above all, they were watchmen and mediators of God’s will toward the community. This study presents the leadership positions of Israel, their role and significance in the life of the chosen people.
Abstract: A SUMMARY AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF JOHN BUTOSI’S THEOLOGY Thanks to John Butosi the Hungarian Reformed church accessed the contemporary theological results in the nineties. Professor Butosi was the person who taught Hungarian theologians that the church is fundamentally missionary in character. He worked at the Debrecen Reformed Theological University and had a great influence on the Department of Mission and Ecumenical Studies. Moreover, he wrote two outstanding books in Hungarian: „Missiology as a Theological Discipline” and „Building a Congregation Today.” He also founded two institutions: the Butosi Mission Fund, by offering his salary, and the Protestant Institute for Mission Studies, led by Anne-Marie Kool. The goal of the present study is to summarize and present the theology of John Butosi. Sándor Gaál emphasized three areas of his work: evangelism, diaspora life and the building of congregations. Butosi himself also thematized his theological thoughts. Comparing the above mentioned theories we can identify five significant topics in his thinking: ecclesiology, building of congregations, evangelism, mission, ecumenism, cults and heresy.
Abstract: The life and work of Hungarian protestant theologians is not the most well researched themes of systematic theology and ecclesiastical history. It is also true for one of the most significant Hungarian liberal theologians, Albert Kovács who was a professor of Practical Theology at Reformed Theological Seminary in Budapest and a prominent member of the Hungarian parliament after the Agreement of 1867. The aim of my research is to disclose that obscurity mentioned, at least in part. The current article does not seek to explore his theology and political career as I had already published on these themes, however, it intends to sketch out briefly the most significant events of his life (his ancestry, childhood, studies and family life) that had exerted an influence on his theological thinking and of course, life. I chose a positivist narrative to present these for the reader. The primer sources, which have been uncovered, throw light on really exciting and unexpected issues of his life. Needless to say, some aspects of his life still await for further research as well as the application of various theological and historical methodologies. In sum, the study draws attention to a professor of Practical Theology whose works inspired such prominent persons as bishops Béla Kenessey and László Ravasz. This study, therefore, provides some valuable pieces of information to the history and theology of Protestantism in Hungary during the age of Dualism.