I. A magyar mint idegen nyelv
Bibliography of Hungarian Linguistic Literature in Poland
The study of Hungarian language in Poland enjoys considerable interest. The aim of the paper is to present the achievements of Hungarian linguistics in Poland. It contains a bibliography of all studies on Hungarian language published in Poland and gives an overview of the directions in which the field is headed
Teaching Hungarian Language and Culture at Cleveland State University: the First Two Years of Reestablished Hungarian Education (2014–2016)
In November of 2013, Cleveland State University (Cleveland, Ohio) and the Fulbright Commission in Budapest (Hungarian-American Commission for Educational Exchange) signed a cooperative agreement according to the terms of which a Fulbright Visiting Professorship in Hungarian Language and Culture was established at the university. Based on this agreement, every year up to 2018, CSU receives a Fulbright Visiting Professor in Hungarian Language and Culture for periods of one academic year. Cleveland and the surrounding areas have a significant community of Hungarian ancestry with a rich local history and a vibrant community life, so the reestablishment of Hungarian education at CSU seemed to be highly appropriate and to present great potential for this very reason, but Hungarian classes are of course open to students with or without Hungarian heritage alike. This paper intends to present the features of Hungarian language and culture education at Cleveland State University, restarted in 2014, with an insight into the results of the educational and organizational works performed in the program’s first two years. It first describes Hungarian courses’ general and methodological characteristics, then it discusses the various programs, events, and extramural activities connected to Hungarian language and culture, as well as highlights the steps made towards the long-term viability of Hungarian Studies at CSU. With all that, and by outlining also some possible future initiatives, it aims at giving a detailed picture of Hungarian education’s present situation at Cleveland State University.
How can I be polite in Hungarian? The issues of polite linguistic behavior for Italian native speakers learning Hungarian language
The polite linguistic behavior is part of the cultural interaction. The cultural characteristics of the polite way of speaking are also present in the teaching of the Hungarian language and culture. Hungarian language books show their functional role highlighting the grammatical forms and the functions of expressing politeness. The paper wants to present some typical characteristics and the cultural context of the polite linguistic behavior in the case of Italian native speakers who study Hungarian language. The analysis aims to answer how Italian native speakers learning Hungarian language express themselves, which kind of language tools they use in a polite interaction, how they respond to compliments in various situations. It is also interesting to analyze how the environment of the native and the target languages (Italian and Hungarian languages) influences the language acquisition. The analys of the linguistic corpus provides an opportunity for the observation of cultural differences and similarities.
Comparision of the development of Hungarian and Polish orthographies
The article describes the means by which scribes and writers have tried to adapt the Latin alphabet to the rich inventory of Hungarian and Polish phonemes. The historical account of both orthographies is preceded by a brief discussion of the development of Hungarian and Polish phonology. The main three strategies of writing down the consonants and vowels not known in Latin included the use of digraphs (e.g. ⟨gy⟩ [ɟ͡ ʝ], ⟨wi⟩ [vʲ]), diacritical marks (e.g. ⟨ǘ⟩ [yː], ⟨¶⟩ [ɕ]) as well as inventing new letters (⟨ʟ⟩ [͡tʃ], ⟨ɳ⟩ [n]). Two illustrations show new letters used by Parkoszowic, Kochanowski and Górnicki.
The teaching of Hungarian infinitive, paticiple, supin, gerund and verbal prefix for romanian students
In my paper I start from the fact that the infinitive, participle, supin and gerund are created from verbs by socalled interim parts of speech, because both carry the characteristics of speech. In them, the verbal and nonverbal features are both well-recognized. But it is just due to this transitional nature, that the various grammars variously classify this type of speech in their own system: for example in many European grammar, verbs broader form of the verb system keeps track of infinitives, participles, supins and gerunds.The verbal prefix belogs here because it is usualy associated with verb or with Hungarian infinitive, participle, supin and gerund; so it is common its occurence near these verb forms. The aim of this paper is therefore to compare on theoretical basis the Hungarian verbal prefixes and participles, respectively the corresponding romanian impersonal mood; and to examine the use of such structures based on the spoken language and the artistic texts.
Understanding and role of present-day Hungarian neologisms in the process of teaching Hungarian language and Hungarian as a Foreign Language
The paper deals with the importance of recognising, understanding, and teaching of present-day Hungarian neologisms in the case of teaching Hungarian and Hungarian as a Foreign Language. By emphasising the importance of metaphoric and metonymic processes, which play important role in the process of meaning construal, the author shows data gathered among native and non-native speakers and learners of Hungarian, including some results of a survey, a sample exercise, and some relevant results of testing items of an online ICT glossary concerning the process of understanding, misunderstanding, and usage of present-day Hungarian neologisms.
The quality management system of ECL Hungarian language exam
exam. Firstly, it presents the language levels of the exam as aligned to the Common European Framework of Reference, next it introduces the major specifications of ECL exam. Thirdly, it presents a recent publication that provides both teachers and students with an excellent opportunity to familiarise themselves with ECL requirements and to practise examination techniques using authentic test material.
II. A magyar szépirodalmi és vokális zenei szövegek a fordítások tükrében
Sight dimensions in the space ”of Babel”: translations of a Nádas novel
The study deals with the Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian and German translations of Péter Nádas’s work Egy családregény vége [The End of a Family Story], as well as with the accessibility of the target language cultures. In terms of translatability especially emerge the Hungarian historical aspects (the turn of the 20th century, the fifty years, show trials and reports of the 1950s, the Central European horizons). The Nádas monograph of Péter Balassa emphasizes the discourse of denial and escape, as well as the significance of the net of motif and symbol, the current analysis of the translations concentrates on a few outstanding transfer operations. The aim of the research is accentuation of the cultural distances and encounters, revealing the specific strategies of certain literary translations. The comparative examination of translations provides further interpretational opportunities, at the same time deals with the problem of timeliness and theoretical dilemmas related to actual translations.
Metaphores of amorous talk in Endre Ady’s poem Héja-nász az avaron (Hawk mating on the fallen leaves), and its Serbian translation
According to cognitive linguistics, human culture rests on a system of common symbols and metaphors, being founded on it. By cognitive metaphors we transmit deep-set ancient knowledge. Metaphors are necessary to constitute the world’s phenomena, and the present notional metaphors reflect back to our ways thinking. This paper attempts to examine Endre Ady’s poem Héjanász az avaron (Hawk mating on the fallen leaves) and its Serbian translation regarding the forms manifestation of cognitive metaphors of love, to find points of contact between the two languages by researching the mutual set of metaphors and expressions stemming from cognitive metaphors. Meanwhile, we cannot disregard the linguistic-poetic possibilities, poetic tradition, and the translator’s intuition.
Early Hungarian Songs with guitar accompaniment – An experimental analysis to prosody and declamation
In this interdisciplinary research I wished to present language, music and translation by the help of the discussed volume: Old Hungarian Songs with Guitar Accompaniment. My goal of investigation was to examine prosody and declamation, and to approach a contrastive comparison to the Hungarian text with its English translations. The focus of the translation was on the exploration of the register of style in connection with the experimental analysis of two selected tune. I believe this research not only proves that the topic itself is able to unite disciplines in order to present a very exciting topic, but that it has relevant educational aspects in teaching Applied Phonetics, Hungarian Studies, Art and Culture as well and by these aspects an insight can be obtained to the Hungarian culture’s lesser-known world of melody and musical literature of the 17th century.
The importance of linguistic and cultural awareness with a contrastive perspective in the practice of translation
In this study I argue that linguistic and cultural awareness having a contrastive approach provides us with a perspective which helps translators to choose consciously from different target language alternatives and offers some objective guidelines for the justification and evaluation of translation solutions. It is not easy to define which criteria we should consider when assessing a text as the translation of another. There are no codified rules in the domain of reading, understanding and translating. The first part of the survey gives an insight into some theoretical aspects of translation such as linguistic and cultural asymmetry, the concept of equivalence in translation, translational behaviour of languages, language pair specific transcoding operations, translator competences. The final section is devoted to the analysis of some pieces of translation from Hungarian to Italian showing the practical validity of what have been said from a theoretical point of view. Translation always means loosing something of the original but as French linguist and translator Georges Mounin claims „if an expression actually cannot be translated, a translator in the twentieth century is at least capable of knowing and understanding why the expression cannot be translated.”
Hungarian Literature in English: An Approach to Translation Criticism
This paper elaborates on an earlier, English-language attempt (Sherwood 2012), to draw attention to the possible application of a milestone work on techniques of translation criticism (Hewson 2011) to the translation of Hungarian literature into English (and possibly also vice versa). The first part of the paper collects some of the materials Hewson calls "preliminary data" (Hewson 2011, 24–26), i.e. aspects of a translated work that need to be explored before criticism proper can begin, illustrating these with chapter and verse from those English translations of Hungarian literature of which the author has had direct experience in his many years of teaching, and translating from, Hungarian, as well as editing Hungarian > English and English > Hungarian dictionaries. The paper concludes with a necessarily superficial comparison of three different translators' versions of a very brief passage from Antal Szerb's novel Utas és holdvilág (1937) – the first time it has been possible to make such a comparison, since only in 2016 did three versions of the same Hungarian novel become available in English translation.
The Reception of Hungarian Romantic Literature in Poland in the Twenty-First Century
Teaching literature of the Romantic Period in the twenty-first century is quite a challenge. Ideas full of pathos often sound grotesquely. This applies mainly to those literary works which are associated with the struggle for freedom and involve making a sacrifice in the name of patriotism. The twentieth century was full of Polish translations of Hungarian romantic literature, while in the twenty-first century Hungarian Romanticism was almost forgotten as the reception of Hungarian literature in Poland was dominated by the translations of contemporary literature. A prominent place in this field is occupied by the translations of Sándor Márai. In my paper I presented these works of Hungarian romantic writers which has been recently published in Polish or has been the subject of various studies and articles. Many of the issues raised in the nineteenth-century works remains equally relevant also in the twenty-first century.
Interculturality of Hungarian Studies from the Point of View of the Translation of Hungarian Poetry
The dilemma whether Hungarian lyre can be or cannot be translated this time is not studied based on interlingual (linguistic-stylistic) criteria but based on intercultural aspects. The lecture on the German translation of the poem Funeral Oration by Dezső Kosztolányi points out why, to what extent it is possible or maybe impossible to translate certain culture based poetic images (e.g.: cultural realias, phraseologisms with cultural background) or texts requiring intertextual knowledge (e.g.: citations, quotations/intertexts) into a different linguistic-cultural medium and how they are interpreted by receivers.