I. Nyelvtan - Nyelvoktatás / Nyelvtanulás - Nyelvtudás
On the relationship between the grammar proper and the lexicon - with special attention to language learning
Grammar and lexis are two, seemingly simple and self-evident terms in foreign language teaching. But can we truly accept as an axiom the proposition that the linguistic system consists of the above two separate components that exist independently of each other? What exactly do these notions refer to, and where is the borderline between words (items) and rules? This paper is an attempt to interpret the relationship between the lexicon and the grammar proper with the help of recent linguistic models and research findings which do not outright reject the existence of the two systems but which at least question their separateness or separability, and which postulate an extensive interface between the traditional categories of items and rules (primarily based on Jackendoff's grammar, Sinclair's idiom principle, the corpus findings of Biber et al., and Goldberg's and Croft's construction grammar).
Rather than being an end in itself, the discussion serves to pave (part of) the way for a corpus-based research paper, and it is written out of the belief that the communicative competence of speakers of Hungarian as a foreign language can best develop if the learners acquire a rich repertoire of multi-morpheme sequences lying at the intersection of grammar and lexis. Many of the sequences in question are (partly or totally) fixed lexically, and contain − in addition to the fixed lexical elements − paradigmatically variable grammatical elements (e.g. inflection). Furthermore, many of the sequences typically render some holistic communicative function, they are associated with a conventional meaning and/or function, and they acquire frequent use in given speech situations. These extremely useful sequences lie at the intersection of words (lexicon), rules (grammar) and acts (pragmatics), and as such, they are important for both linguistic and pragmalinguistic competence in language learning and language proficiency.
Some questions on the short-term memory in case of Hungarian native speakers and L2 learners of Hungarian
The aim of this paper is to compare the mental lexicon by investigating the short term memory of Hungarians and language learners. Based on the principles of the holistic functional cognitive linguistics the mental lexicon is handled as the storage of constructions influenced by schemas. There is no distinct division between stems and suffixes as both are part of the same scale being meaningful elements. A computer-based experiment was carried out with 20 participants to investigate their short-term memories. It was discovered that there is no difference in the short-term memorial capacities between native speakers and language learners. Another finding was that stem-frequency has no effect on short-term memory. Besides, the results supported the scale-concept both in case of Hungarians and L2 learners, as more stems could have been recalled and the ratio of the recognised inflected forms also differed. The conclusions of this research are advised to be implemented in classrooms.
Linguistic Norm In Hungarian Linguistics
After the change of the Hungarian regime, studying the linguistic norm has become an essential part of Hungarian linguistics. Political changes and the split of the social unity made linguists and purists think over the norm. As the direct political influence on language use ceased, speakers (not always consciously) started to use language according to its natural functions: as the tool of communication as well as to express their identity.
This study, reacting to the problems of the linguistic norm, offers a historical view of the norm to conribute to its definitions in the present when the clear view on norm is especially important in the teaching of Hungarian as a mother tongue as well as a second and foreign language.
The importance of declamation in the processing of poetic and musical texts from the point of view of the development of pronunciation
The paper setting out from the correspondence of language, poetry and vocal music mobilizing the interrelation of the „literary-musical mother tongued ” presents the application of short literary texts in teaching Hungarian as a second language. Special emphasis is put on the rhytmical prose and sung poems with the help of that the prosody of a language can be taught effectively.
Where we might arrive. Which denomination leads us to happiness?
Literary and artistic values, literary oeuvres, the author’s intention, his poetic attitude and the rhetoric of a text all bear witness to the characteristics of various denominations.
We are especially inclined to contemplate and interpret our so-called “biblical poets” (Bálint Balassi’s, Endre Ady’s, Mihály Babits’s) lyrical texts from the aspect of Catholicism and the Protestant tradition. Bálint Balassi received a Lutheran education, and converted to Catholicism after his marriage. Changing one’s denomination was not considered to be unique in the historical context of 16th-century reformation and counter-reformation.
The Protestant tradition dominates in Balassi’s poetry whether we look at his choice of topic or his ideas.
I wish to support the above statement by the analysis of one of his 19 remaining pious poems, entitled Adj már csendességet... [Give me peace]. The masterfully composed poem contains a number of biblical allusions.
On the other hand, Balassi’s religious poetry is characterised by an especially abundant use of intertextuality within his own oeuvre.
Béla Németh G.’s 1977 analysis inspired me to interpret all the important aspects of the poem, and then, to focus on only one detail, namely, the path towards justification as shown by Balassi.
High culture in the Hungarian as a foreign language lesson: how to use literary texts in the classroom
In the second language teaching is a crucial question in which level and what kind of culture to incorporate into the lessons. The role and use of literary texts varied throughout the history of language teaching. The second phase of the communicative methodology in the 90s was the first that began to adopt literary texts as a base for language learning and for transmitting socialcultural information.
The literary texts are very well applicable in the classroom as they foment the development of the five linguistic aptitudes. They can serve as a base for presenting different linguistic and sociocultural contents. The present paper shows four proposals how literary texts can be applied in Hungarian as a foreign language teaching.
Texts saturated with linguistcal-literary motivation in the reflection of literary analysis and translational stylistics
The study sets out from the typology of analogous coded linguistic signs putting the phonologic motivation in the centre. On the example of key lines of five Hungarian poems it presents the nature of alliteration and sound symbolism and their meaningful interlocking, their relation of different intensity to the whole text and its visual world. The study represents the poetic effect of text level motivation in the synthesis of content and form.
In case of one of the poems the study illustrates the above mentioned unity on the example of German and Italian translations. The parallel phonostylistical analysis mobilizes the different aspects of translation criticism and contrastive linguistics giving common edification.
„I have created a new and different world out of nothing“ (A sentence of János Bolyai)
In 1823 János Bolyai wrote in a letter to his father Farkas Bolyai: “I have created a new and different world out of nothing”. This new world was his discovery of the first non-euclidean geometry. In this article we support the thesis that Bolyai's sentence became a saying: indeed, it is used now in more than 30 languages spread all over the world. Our point of departure is the original Hungarian wording and its “canonical” German translation. We analyze a number of translations into different languages and point out some deficiencies.
On the „first Hungarian” colloquial
The article introduces Kristóf Warmer’s colloquial – published in 1691 – entitled, Gazophylacium…., places it amongst the European colloquial books of the era and gives its correct location within the curriculum of Hungarian as a foreign language. The goal of the detailed analysis of dialogues is to unfold the universality and cultural value of the work.
IV. Hungarológia Európában
The Establishment of the Library for Hungarian Studies at the University of Berlin between the two World Wars
In the years between the two World Wars, Hungarian cultural policy led to the creation of foreign Hungarian institutions. In this spirit, the Berlin Hungarian Academy of Sciences was established in 1917 by Robert Gragger, the only Hungarian institution established abroad, which even today has continued to operate without interruption since its foundation. Gragger considered one of the most important tasks of the institution to be the creation of Hungarology Library, which still has the largest library in Hungarica material outside the Carpathian Basin.
My presentation deals with the history of its foundation, and within that the most valuable part, the Kassai Collection, the history of the acquisition of the Bibliotheca Nationis Hungariae from Halle to Berlin, based on documents found in the Bundesarchiv in Berlin , the processing of which has not yet been carried out . With the obtaining of the Kassai Collection by Gragger, the first German-Hungarian cultural institute merged with the Berlin Hungarian Academy of Sciences providing a two hundred year continuity of Hungarian aspirations towards Germany .
Hungarian Taught in Helsinki
I have visited several places where Hungarian is taught in Helsinki and I am trying to introduce these institutions or organizations. The present paper focuses on the background of teaching Hungarian in Helsinki, the motivation of the students and the study material. It also deals with the aims and programs of the Hungarian Cultural and Scientific Centre of Helsinki.
Language history: functions and culture transfer (Zagreb experiences)
Hungarian Studies in Zagreb are situated at the meeting point of two less known languages. Although both being official languages in the European Union, both Croatian and Hungarian belong to the less known and studied languages. There are also other languages and cultures forming this kind of relationship such as e.g. Estonian and Hungarian, Finnish and Hungarian, Slovakian and Slovenian. While different belonging the number of their native speakers, they are all languages which only a few decide to study and still far fewer want to make them to their profession. Historicalstudies and therefore also studies of language history play an important role in emphasising the fact that a centuries‐long historical, linguistic and cultural intertwining makes the Croatian‐Hungarian relationship special.
Hungarian Studies at the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the University of Zagreb are located at the same institute as Turkology and Jewish Studies. This year we are celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Department of Hungarian Studies. The number of the students is constant with totally 60‐70 studentsin the BA and MA programmes(from which 10-12 students a year enrol in the MA programme). After the accession to the EU, despite our hopes, neither Hungarian nor Croatian have attracted an increased number of language learners.
The language history course on which the presentation is focussing takes place in the second term of the fourth year of the program. Its purpose is not only to give an introduction into the history of the Hungarian and in its historical relationships (e.g. loanwords) but also (as synthesising studies) to explain issues which can not be discussed in the language courses and further to lighten the complicated system of the East Central European language area.