World War I and Housing Rental Market, 1914-1938
The universal tenant-protection schemes and rent control system (RCS) were born out of the huge turmoil triggered by World War I. By the end of the war, the trend towards an ever more elaborated RCS was gaining firm ground; throughout 1920s it was the prevailing model of housing policy on the European continent. The four countries under study followed the above mentioned European trends of increasing state intervention in the housing market, and furthermore, their authorities, representing distinctive Southeast- and East-Central European patterns of administrative modus operandi, applied some of the most intensive forms of housing policies in Europe during the first postwar decade. In the first place, this refers to the practice of requisitioning housing units, which was maintained in these countries, even after it was abolished by the most interventionist Central European countries. According to the innovative 6-level developmental typology, this proved to be the highest level of state intervention in the housing market in interwar Europe (5 out of maximum 6), if the Bolshevik practices (6 out of 6) are to be excluded from the comparison. On the other hand, Southeast European countries managed to effectively return to prewar liberal practices, while this was not accomplished by the most liberal Western European countries. From this perspective, East-Central and Southeast European countries represent confronted patterns of the most liberal and the most interventionist housing policies in Europe in the period under review.
No Man’s Land: The Invalid and Volunteer Questions in Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia inherited a divided wartime legacy: its war veterans that had fought or served with the Allies during the war and those that had fought or served with the Central Powers. But between the two contingents of South Slav war veterans – those that had fought in the Serbian army and those that had fought for Austria-Hungary - there was a kind of middle ground, a ‘no man’s land’ occupied by veterans who did not exactly fit into either side. The most prominent groups in this middle ground were disabled veterans, South Slavs from either the Austro-Hungarian army or the Serbian army who had been permanently injured or disfigured during the war years, and the volunteers, South Slavs of all nationality and background who had opted to fight in the Serbian army’s volunteer divisions during the wars. This article explores the experiences of veterans residing in the ‘no man’s land’ in Yugoslavia.
Storm. The History of the Hungarian Party in Vojvodina (1923-1925)
This study elaborates on the history of the Hungarian Party based on sources from contemporary Hungarian (Bácsmegyei Napló, Hírlap, Torontál, Délbácska) and Serbian (Vreme, Politika, Pravda) press. The Hungarian Party is a Hungarian minority organization which was founded and operated on the territory of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. The focus is on the events following the first failed election in 1923, up until the new 1925 election. For the purpose of understanding and accurately reconstructing the events at the time, the study analyses events that received outstanding attention in contemporary public life in chronological order, completing the current literature: the arrest of Ödön Nagy and László Gráber, the banning of the party, the causal relationship of internal conflicts within the party, the struggle between the clearly identifiable factions at the time and the attitudes of the political circles of Belgrade towards the Hungarian question.
Two Jubilees of the “Day of Freedom”. On the Official Commemoration of 28th October 1918 in Slovakia from 1918 to 1938
Commemoration of the “Day of Freedom”, as 28th October, the Czechoslovak Independence Day was called in the interwar period, was one of the most important holidays in the imaginary state calendar of the Czechoslovak Republic. This day was presented as a characteristic turn, as a liberation from the hands of an age-old enemy and at the same time as a new beginning, attached to the foundation of the nation-state and to the republican form of government. Although this day was to be an important feast for all inhabitants of the state, in fact it had not come true, and actually from 1919 this event was mainly represented as a Czechoslovak Memorial Day. The author analyzes the ways of commemoration of 28th October, especially in the Slovak territory, where he focuses mostly on the argumentation of the representatives of the Slovak People’s Party lead by Andrej Hlinka. The study is based primarily on the research of periodicals but sets out from a broader research of commemorative practices during the First Republic. The main emphasis is put on the two round jubilees of 1928 and 1938, during which a significant shift took place in the ways and contents of the official commemoration of that holiday. Based on these events, the author also demonstrates the failure of the officially advocated idea of Czechoslovak national unity and some select features of the Slovak nationalist argumentation.
Sovietizing Hungarian Criminal Law: Intermediaries and Institutions (1945–1961)
This paper examines the post-1945 Hungarian judicial system in order to fill a hiatus in the relevant literature. Part of the existing literature focuses on the way war criminals and collaborators were handled by a given country’s judicial system. Another segment of the literature deals with the Sovietization of Soviet-occupied Eastern Europe, primarily examining the salami-slicing of opposition parties and the construction of the police state. This chapter links the analysis of Sovietization with the examination of the Hungarian judicial system with a special focus on the role played by Hungarian intermediaries, scrutinizing which intermediaries created what kind of new practices and institutions with what content.