Unification through Jurisdiction. Remarks on Papal Judges-Delegate in Apulia prior to 1189
The article deals with questions concerning papal delegated jurisdiction in the Southern Italian region of Apulia, from its first detectable appearance in the 12th century until 1189. Mainly analyzing papal mandates of delegation issued to local prelates, the study focuses on how papal delegations were developed, implemented and used especially in ecclesiastical institutions in the archdioceses of Trani, Bari, Brindisi, and the exempt diocese of Monopoli. Thereby, it discusses the unifying and standardizing capability of papal jurisdiction after and during the 11–12th-century curial reforms. The issuing of papal mandates of delegation began considerably later (and was of lower quantity) in this region than in other parts of the Latin Church, as the first of the 17 mandates issued in the analyzed period dates back to the pontificate of Pope Alexander III. However, thematic analogies of the cases are indicated. Several papal charters were issued during a case tried by judge delegates, and certain specialists for different cases can be identified amongst the Apulian judge delegates. In general, it can be assumed that the Roman curia, as well as the ecclesiastical institutions of Apulia under Norman rule, needed time to develop and test new ways of organizing ecclesiastical jurisdiction and that a certain level of integration must have already been established prior to the new jurisdictional procedures.
The order of succession in the Árpád dinasty between the 10th and 12th centuries
This paper aims to examine the Árpád dynasty’s order of succession between the 10th and 12th centuries, which has been a topic of debates for a long time. There are clear signs of an order of succession in the 10th century in which different branches descendant from the sons of Árpád followed one another in the position of supreme authority. Our sources are not sufficient for the examination of the stability of this system and Géza’s rise to power, who followed Taksony as his son. Stephen I’s desire to introduce primogeniture is clearly demonstrable, as it constituted an integral part of his new state structure. With Andrew I’s ascension to the throne, the old order of succession, in which the heir was the brother of the former ruler or came from another branch of the family, seems to have returned. It is unclear whether the division of the country between Vazul’s sons had any links to the duchies during the reign of Géza, or the Gyula’s regnum in Transylvania. It is possible that these conventions could become parts of the feudal state structure due to the contemporary Czech and Polish examples. Coloman was the first after Andrew to name his son as his heir. The background of this decision is uncertain, it is possible that its only reason was the impatience and rebelling of Álmos, who was originally considered to be his heir. The Álmos branch kings’ strong intention to introduce Christian primogeniture was most likely motivated by their irresolvable emotional opposition to the Coloman branch, which resulted in their abandonment of the ancient custom. However, respect for the previous order also survived in the Álmos branch. Seniority or successio gradualis, which appeared as an ancient law as opposed to primogeniture, which was the common order of succession in Christian monarchies, can be traced back to the succession customs of the 10th century Árpáds.
Duke Coloman of Slavonia and Pope Gregory IX. A Hungarian Royal Prince in the Service ofthe Apostolic See?
This study discusses the – markedly amicable – relationship between Prince Coloman, the son of King Andrew II (1205–1235), and Pope Gregory IX (1227–1241). The relationship between the Duke of Slavonia and the Head of the Church was fairly expansive, as shown by several issues besides the matters of Coloman and the Hungarian church, like the fight against the Bosnian heretics, the papal mandate given to the duke in the matter of two widowed Polish princesses, the vow to uphold the Treaty of Bereg, the legal disputes with the Slavonian province of the Knights Templar, and the planned unification of the churches of Spalato and Zagreb.
Imperial universalism in Sigismund's diplomatic practice. The morals of the visits to France and England
Sigismund of Luxembourg was the longest reigning monarch in the history of the independent Kingdom of Hungary. During fifty-year reign, significant changes occurred in the history of Western Christianity, and by extension, Hungary. The Western dynasties (Anjou, Luxemburg, Habsburg) were living a period of successful expansion in Central-Eastern Europe during the Anjou reign in Hungary and the Luxembourg reign in Bohemia. It's becoming more and more obvious that several aspects of Sigismund's rule in Hungary can also be considered parts of this process. The Luxembourgs were aiming to establish strong positions in Central Europe, and to acquire the title of Emperor. The study examines Sigismund's international policy, which encompassed an uncharacteristically large area, as well as the methods of such policy. The "crisis" of the medieval West brought several common problems to light, which were economic, societal, organizational, political, military and ideological in nature. One of the most obvious manifestations of the division of Christianitas and the waste of resources was the Hundred Years' War. The answer to the schism was reformatio in capite et in membris, in the case of the Hundred Years' War it was peace mediation, and the reaction to the outside threat was a new Crusade. Sigismund used the widespread notion of conciliarism to convoke the Council of Constance, and he was commissioned by the Council to launch a mediation mission during the Hundred Years' War as Imperator Pacificus. The aforementioned crisis brought about the renaissance of imperial universalism, as well as the general strengthening of the Emperor's position. Sigismund successfully solved some of these problems, even though his solutions were controversial. Sigismund strongly depended on the principle of imperial supremacy, that could be derived from imperial universalism. However, this obviously infringed the sovereignty of the big national monarchies. His endeavors sparked overt or covert opposition from his partners. This is clearly visible in the French and English stages of his mediation attempt, which included several symbolic events. These events were interpreted somewhat differently by English, French, Belgian, and German historiographies. The study examines this process by comparing sources, and confirms that the alliances in Canterbury and Calais (1416), formed instead of peace mediation, ensured the undisturbed operation of the Council of Constance, and created a temporary balance between the rivaling Western powers. However, this balance was tainted by internal tension, and it foreshadowed the final, desperate struggles of the Hundred Years' War. The decline of conciliarism and imperial universalism also decreased the effectiveness of Sigismund's actions. This study considers the process to be the culmination of Sigismund's diplomacy based on universalism, and at the same time the confirmation of the national component in the big Western monarchies ("the king is Emperor in his kingdom") in a new context, which means the consolidation of the concept of sovereignty.
The Kingdom of Hungary and Rome, 1628–1635. Hungarian relations with the nunciatures of J.B. Pallotto, C. Rocci and M. Baglioni
The paper examines in detail the Hungarian relations with the IVth Abteilung of the Nuntiaturberichte, from the extraordinary nunciature of Giovanni Battista Pallotto to the mission of Malatesta Baglioni. The analysis focuses on the volumes published by Rotraud Becker in the 21st century. It also discusses the Roman legation of Pázmány and the planning of his return that is the nucleum of the Hungarian projection of the source material. Compared to this, the occurrence of data related to the Habsburg Empire and the Principality of Transylvania, including data related to the succession to the throne and the Hungarian diet, is secondary. The religious matters rather fade into the background, only the support of the missions of the Propaganda Fide makes the picture more nuanced. There were no reforms in the age of the nunciature of Vienna, but the nunciature was decisively political, that looked at Hungary, as well as Central Europe from the point of view of the European, Italian policy. This can be proved with a rich and valuable series of data from the enormous documentary material of the IVth Abteilung of the Nuntiaturberichte, issued in the 21st century. The four imposing volumes of the enormous enterprise of the German Historical Institute in Rome make – partially through Hungarian-related data –the statement of Georg Lutz concerning the Barberini era about “the specific interference of religion and policy” at the expense of the former even more plastic. At the same time, they further detail the reasons given in the Reinhard thesis about the Italianisation of the Papacy and the Holy College. As a result, now we know the collision between the Barberini Pope and Cardinal Pázmány almost in its whole depth. A particular consequence of this conflict was that Pázmány formalized the Hungarian church-state ideology dating back in the 15th century, on the basis of which the Hungarian (apostolic) kings, referring to the ius supremi patronatus, had more control over the Hungarian church than the Roman Pontiffs in many respects. In the paper, out of the countries of the Hungarian Holy Crown only the Kingdom of Hungary and the Principality of Transylvania are mentioned in detail, while Croatia and Dalmatia only marginally. Namely, these later territories had been controlled by the nunciature of Graz, and most of their ecclesiastic matters, including the apostolic missions in the Balkans, were transferred to the nunciature of Venice rather than to that of Vienna.