Reasons behind a Failure. The Siege of Kanizsa in 1601
After a 45-day siege, Georg von Paradeiser was forced to surrender Kanizsa to the assaulting Ottoman army on 22 October, 1600. After the fall of the castle, preparations for setting up a new defensive line to protect the remaining territories in Southern Transdanubia, Styria and Lower Austria started in Vienna and Graz as early as October. Playing a key role in defending both the Holy Roman Empire and Italy, the protective structures around Kanizsa had been planned and constructed before the Fifteen Years War according to clearly defined military conceptions, taking into consideration the terrain, hydrography and road infrastructure of the surrounding area. On the other hand, after the fall of the castle, negotiations started between Vienna and Graz about planning, as a major military action for the following year, the recapture of the strategically important fortress. However, during the negotiations held in Vienna in December 1600, it became clear that the army of the governor of Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia and Carniola), Archduke Ferdinand could only count on military support from the Pope, Tuscany, Mantua and Spain for this campaign. After a siege lasting 68 days, the attempt to recapture the castle ended in failure on 16 November, 1601. Instead of describing the stages of the siege, the author intends to present all those circumstances in his paper which decisively influenced the progress of the campaign and mainly contributed to its failure. These include the lack of proper preparations for the campaign, the ignorance of the military leadership and the weather conditions.
The Plan of a Diplomat of Hungarian Origin to Conquer Egypt from the end of the 1770s
The life of François baron de Tott (1733–1793) or Baron Ferenc Tóth is still a mysterious and obscure chapter in modern diplomatic history, even despite the one-time success of his memoirs. As the son of a kuruc officer, he was born in France and chose a military and later diplomatic career there. In the Turkish war of 1768-1774 he played an important role in modernizing the Turkish Army. After the end of the war, he returned to France. Represented primarily by the Secretary of State for the Navy, count Sartine and his leading officer, Saint Didier, voices in the Versailles cabinet seeking the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire became more pronounced in the 1770s. Baron Tott prepared a plan to conquer and colonize the rich province of Egypt. Even though the plan was not supported by foreign minister Count Vergennes, it provided a fantastic opportunity for the interventionist circles in the Versailles government to organize an expedition, which eventually took place in 1777- 1778. As the chief supervisor of the trade offices and diplomatic representations belonging to the French sphere of influence, Baron Tott traveled through the Eastern basin of the Mediterranean and was collecting secret information for a potential Egyptian campaign. After his travels, he worked out a complete military plan to conquer Egypt, which was not realized for almost twenty years till the Egyptian expedition of Napoleon, due to the unfavorable political environment.
The Military Efforts of the Vichy Regime in North Africa in the Axis Alliance from the Légion Tricolore to the Phalange Africaine
Although we have a great deal of information about Second World War French military history, we still do not know everything about the Vichy government’s attempt to engage in military collaboration with Nazi Germany. Despite the fact that France was defeated in 1940, the country's government tried to improve the French positions in German commanded Europe. For the Vichy government, one of the most important areas was the Mediterranean region where it tried to maintain the French influence even by offering support to Germany in the hope of receiving some military and political concessions in return. This collaboration had a very important element, namely the establishment of two military units which were to fight by the side of the German forces in Africa: the Legion tricolore and the Phalange africaine. In the autumn of 1942, the Legion was dissolved even before its first mission, but the Phalange participated in the Tunisian fights against the Anglo- Saxon armies in 1943. Despite these efforts, France’s position did not improve as a result of which this attempt is considered one of the fiascos of the Vichy regime.
The Loss of Lajos Kossuth’s Citizenship
Among the cases of loss of citizenship, the most heated public law debates revolved around the institution of absence, since it was also used for political purposes as is demonstrated by the example of Lajos Kossuth, who was deprived of his citizenship under this law. The automatic loss of citizenship due to long-term absence was clearly aimed at politicians living in exile. On the basis of the minutes found among the archival materials of the Council of Ministers, we can establish that the institution of absence – and especially the case of Lajos Kossuth's citizenship – created a major political crisis, which was not even alleviated by the fact that Kálmán Tisza proposed an amendment to the citizenship law arguing that obtaining honorary citizenship should be regarded as the maintenance of Hungarian citizenship. The significance of the political debate is illustrated by the fact that Kálmán Tisza, after losing his stability in Parliament, was forced to resign.
A Chapter in the Reception of the Bible in Hungary
Recently, it has been suggested in the literature that the first known Latin work written in Hungary, the Admonitions of Saint Stephen must have been the creation of an editorial committee. Supporters of this theory argue that the work bear witness to such wide knowledge of ancient and medieval sources that it is highly unlikely that any individual author in Hungary could possess such erudition at the time. The work must have been written simultaneously with the laws of Stephen, which should also be regarded the work of a committee. But in reality the Admonitions is independent of the laws, as it is proved by the most ancient textual tradition. The use of a large number of sources was not uncommon at the time, either, as it is proved by the example of Saint Gerard. Authors often used florilegia, but what is the most important: we also need to reckon with a mosaic-like use of the Biblical tradition, which was rather typical at this period in medieval culture and which also allowed the inclusion of ancient sources.
Elmélet és módszer