Abstract: The present paper aims to model the interactional operation of heckling, which has received little attention in impoliteness and interaction studies, despite the fact that studying this phenomenon has various advantages for the analyst. In order to fill this knowledge gap, we approach heckling by combining Turner’s (1982) anthropological framework with Kádár’s interaction-based relational ritual theory (e.g. Kádár 2012, 2013; Kádár & Bax 2013). Following Turner, we define heckling as a ‘social drama’, which is evaluated by its watchers as ‘judges’. In accordance with Kádár’s relational ritual framework we argue that heckling is a mimetic ritualistic mini-performance, which is inherently interactional as it operates in the adjacent action pair of the heckler’s performance and the public speaker/performer’s counter-performance. Adopting Turner’s terminology, heckling is a ritualistic performance of ‘anti-structure’, i.e. it upsets the regular social – and consequently interactional – structure of a setting. Successful counter-performance is a ritual of ‘structure’, which restores the normal social structure of the event, as the public speaker/performer regains control over the interaction. Through the social actions of performance and counter-performance the heckled and the heckler aim to affiliate themselves with the audience, who are ‘metaparticipants’ of the ritualistic interaction, and with the watchers/listeners in the case of video/audio-recorded interactions, who can be defined as ‘lay observers’ (cf. Kádár & Haugh 2013). Approaching heckling as a theatrical type of relational ritual helps us capture various complexities of this phenomenon, such as its relationship with certain interactional settings and metaparticipant expectations/ evaluations, and its interface with related phenomena such as impoliteness.
Keywords: heckling, ritual, (dis)affiliation, interruption, disruption, aggression
Abstract: Having analysed personal accounts of people with autism spectrum disorder, we should say that there are main differences in the use of natural language depending on the communicator’s intentions (Sperber & Wilson 1995). People with autism spectrum disorder have detail-focused processing style; they have typical cognitive disorders caused by their weak central coherence capacities (Frith 1989; Happé & Frith 2006; Győri 2006). According to Tomasello (2001) and Frith (2007) neurodevelopmental pragmatic disorders in autism are caused also by their non-typical social competences (Győri 2003, 2014). These could be the reasons why special forms of communicative and non-communicative language use differ. In this paper we would like to focus on the hypothesized lack of communicative and/or informative intention in autism spectrum disorder.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, relevance theory, intention, ostensive behaviour, central coherence, personal accounts
Abstract: This paper aims to give a narratological analysis of the system of characters in the 72 short stories of Marguerite de Navarre’s Heptaméron with the help of the actantial model elaborated by A. J. Greimas in 1966, and the semiological model proposed by Philippe Hamon in 1972. While Greimas’s model represents the narrative as based on six interacting and partly conflicting roles (actants) fundamental to any story, Hamon’s description takes into account the textual variations of characters (actors) manifesting those roles. A combination of the two models has proved to be fruitful for a description and a typology of the possible relations between these two levels of analysis.
Keywords: narratology, actantial model, semiology of characters, short story
Abstract: E-learning is a rapidly developing field that affects not only teachers and students but also content developers and hardware manufacturers. As e-learning developed, a number of psychological and learning theories have been applied which also contrasted the current state of the available technology. Nowadays, constructivism is largely seen by the literature as a guiding frame. Technological developments are becoming rapid and are affecting a larger student population than before, who are already socialized in them to varying degrees. For this reason it is important to be aware of how the field is developing and what patterns could point toward a new e-learning frame. The present article establishes a frame for e-learning generations and aims to predict an upcoming state, and supports this position by analyzing the findings of research articles that illustrate this development.
Keywords: technological development, learning theories, ubiquitous learning, virtual realities, gamification, language education
Abstract: The paper investigates whether grammaticality judgement tests (GJT) are valid measures of explicit knowledge of second language learners and examines whether the two established aspects of GJTs, which are time pressure (presence or absence) and task stimulus (grammatical or ungrammatical), satisfy the construct validity requirements of GJTs or further aspects are called for. The investigation was carried out by applying two tests developed by R. Ellis (2005) and the results of the present study are compared with those of earlier studies (Bowles 2011; Ellis 2005; Gutierrez 2012). Exploratory Factor Analysis revealed that in contrast with earlier findings, neither the timed, nor the untimed grammaticality judgement scores loaded on the explicit factor. Although, the results of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis were not unequivocal, the values approximated the expected limits. Regarding the fact that the structure, content and methodology of the tests applied in the present study are identical with those of Ellis’ and are similar to those of the other two studies (Bowles 2011; Gutierrez 2012), it is assumed that a third aspect has to be taken into consideration which also has an effect on the validity of GJTs. This aspect is the grammatical difficulty of tests. Participants of the present study are highly proficient second language learners, whose proficiency level is at C1, as opposed to the participants of the earlier studies, whose level varies between A2-B2. Adjusting the grammatical difficulty of grammaticality judgement tests to the proficiency level of the test-takers proves to be fundamental when applying GJTs as valid measures of explicit-implicit knowledge.
Keywords: explicit knowledge and grammatical judgement tests
Abstract: This paper presents Galia Hirsch’s theory regarding the relationship between irony and humor. Hirsch suggests that we can find in texts certain cues that enable the detection of irony and humor. The combination of various cues defines an utterance as either ironic or humorous. My aim is to investigate these cues and to evaluate the theory about the clear-cut distinction between irony and humor. After that I suggest a possible way of further investigations.
Keywords: irony, humor, cue
Abstract: The paper is designed to study a segment of the Middle English lexicon, namely, loans from Latin into Middle English, and, in particular, the lexico-semantic group of occupational terms. Both common nouns and paroper names are divided into thematic groups and subgroups with the representation of their lexico-semantic and phonographic variations and are are arranged in chronological order. The occupational terms are distributed on a functionasl basis as well, with three subgroups being outlined: names with settled usage, names with unsettled usage, and names with limited usage. The data obtained confirm that borrowings from Latin were scarce, especially in the lexico-semantic domain of occupational terms.
Keywords: the Middle English language, Latin lexical borrowings, occupational terms
Abstract: Grice’s thesis that cancellability is a necessary condition for conversational implicature has been called into question since 2006 over and over again. At that time has Weiner published the article Are all conversational implicatures cancellable?, in which he claims that not all conversational implicatures are cancellable. The article has sparked an intense debate about the issue. In the present paper I would like to show the debate about the cancellability of conversational implicatures. Furthermore, I summarize the most important questions relating to the issue, and I investigate how they could be answered within the framework of irony research. The connection of the implicature research to the irony research is by the fact motivated that irony appears as a sort of conversational implicature in according with Grice’s theory. I suppose, if we can deeper understand the cancellability und working of conversational implicatures, than we can also gain a deeper understanding of the operation of irony.
Keywords: implicature, irony, cancellability
Neue Methoden der Datenverarbeitung in der Germanistik
Abstract: The present paper outlines a new lexeme (selfie) and its variants. The report begins with an overview of the theories about the new lexemes. Then it investigates the definition and history of the word selfie. Finally, it presents a corpus-driven quantitative-qualitative study about the lexicological and morphological aspects of the word selfie. The study is contrastive, based on English, German and Hungarian and analyses social media as corpus.
Keywords: nonce words, neologisms, compounds, social media, contrastive linguistics
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to allow a look at the work on the third volume of Bassola et al.’s German-Hungarian Valency dictionary of Nouns (germ. Deutsch-ungarisches Substantivvalenzwörterbuch) in preparation. First, it will be briefly discussed how the valency of nouns is interpreted in the context of this work, and how this inter-pretation influences the selection and conception of the entries. Special attention will be devoted to the work steps in which COSMAS IIweb, the Corpus Search, Management and Analysis System of IDS (germ. Institut für Deutsche Sprache), plays an important role. It will also be shown – through concrete examples – how COSMAS IIweb can contribute to the identification of the relevant meanings, complementation patterns and authentic realization-forms of the complements of the selected nouns.
Keywords: German-Hungarian Valency Dictionary of Nouns, sui generis interpretation of noun valency, complements, forms of realization, support verb constructions, corpus study, COSMAS IIweb
Abstract: Indirect pronominal anaphora have long been a controversial issue in linguistic research. Cornish et al. (2005) contributed to the debate on the ability of pronouns to refer to implicit referents in carrying out two reading-time experiments in French and English with the help of which the following general hypothesis was supposed to be tested: A non-subject pronoun can felicitously retrieve an implicit referent without increasing processing cost on the condition that it is “nuclear” in terms of the situation which is evoked. The results of the experiment confirmed their hypothesis. The research documented in the present paper is based on the predictions and results of Cornish et al. (2005). Since the experiment using English language material replicated the results of the experiment using French language material, it can be suggested that reference centrality was conceptual and not purely linguistic in nature. Supposing that reference centrality applies to German, too, I tested the following hypothesis with the help of online-questionnaires using dialogues: A non-subject pronoun can felicitously retrieve an implicit referent without native speaker grammaticality judgments turning out negative – but only on the condition that it is “nuclear” and not “peripheral” in terms of the situation which is evoked. The present work also aims at presenting grammaticality judgments as insightful sources of information in linguistic theory.
Keywords: indirect anaphora, pronouns, conceptual centrality, grammaticality judgments
Abstract: The present paper investigates the role of digital corpora in current research on metaphor. Digital corpora are important data sources in linguistic research that can also enhance statistically representative achievements. I propose the so-called further developed funnel method as a semi-automatic method of metaphor analysis in corpora, which I tested on a German corpus consisting of transcripts of German (state) parliament sittings. With the help of this method completed with an automatic collocation analysis, I examine sociological metaphors in political context in such a way that the collection of data is not based on introspective lists of metaphorical expressions or dictionary articles, but the source of the keywords is the corpus itself. As a result, the introspective characteristic of the research methodology can be reduced further. It has been found on the basis of frequency data and the so-called Log Likelihood Ratio (LLR) that beside the so-called organic metaphors primarily technical and building metaphors play the most important role in contemporary political discourse.
Keywords: conceptual metaphor theory, corpus research, organic metaphor, method of metaphor analysis, metaphor and collocation analysis
Abstract: Traditionally, synaesthesia is considered to be a metaphoric phenomenon (e.g. Taylor 1995: 139) following a certain directionality (e.g. Ullmann 1951, Williams 1976, Yamanashi 1988, Yu 2003, Shen 1997, 2008, Sada-mitsu 2003). More recently some authors have proposed a conceptual metonymic motivation for synaesthetic expressions (e.g. Barcelona 2002: 243, Sadamitsu 2003). In line with these proposals I will argue that several synaesthetic expressions can be analyzed as being metonymically motivated and they are based either directly on the co-occurrence or indirectly on the resemblance of sensory stimuli. After a brief introduction (Section 1) I will introduce the notion of property-metonymy and its applicability to synaesthetic expressions (Section 2). Furthermore, based on a corpus-based analysis of German colour-smell synaesthetic expressions (Section 3 and 4) it will be shown that though these expressions are extremely rare, they do occur and they clash with most hypotheses regarding the directionality of synaesthetic mappings. My results are summarized in Section 5 where I also propose the possibility that this clash might be accounted for by the metonymic nature of the expressions under scrutiny.
Keywords: metonymy, synaesthesia, metahpor, directionality, sensory stimuli, perceptual domains, olfaction, colour terms