Changing Times – Changing Language
In the 20th century Hungarian language can be characterized by regression and divergent changes, especially in the regions outside Hungary where the Hungarian speakers live in minority situation. At present the demographic and areal regression is continuing, but the inner convergence change is stronger than previously. In this respect literature, the churches and the institutional language usage play an important part in that process. The symbolic value of language in identity has increased, but the choice of the language of study is unfavorable. The main goal of the language planning is standardization and filling the language gaps.
Endangereed Languages and their Revitalization
Language revitalization and revival has been in the focus of sociolinguistic and linguistic research as an opportunity to challenge the forces and processes of language endangerment, language decay and language shift. This study is a short introduction to the question of language endangerment presenting some relevant data in connection with the number of the world's languages and their speakers, as well as the complex web of motivations for community language change. The study also outlines a short historic presentation of language revival processes and methods and it offers a few examples of successful language revitalization programs. As a conclusion it formulates the need for the revitalization of Hungarian in some regions in Romania.
Ukrainian Educational Policy and the Lingvistic Minnorities
Ukraine is de jure monolingual state, but de facto is multilingual. It is proved by the census data, the sociological researches and by the everyday practice. Although 130 nationalities live in the country, Ukrainians (by nationality) create the absolute majority. But if we take into consideration the contact variant of the Ukrainian and Russian language, that is the surzhyk (which can be considered an independent language according to a lot of people), then the Russians whose native language is Russian are relatively in majority.
The Ukrainian political elite which call themselves democratic, wants to resolve the discrepancy between the de facto and the de jure situation in the way that they imagine the country as a monolingual state. The President, the ministry of education, ministry of culture, ministry of traffic create a situation according to the aligned action plan, in which the state language (the Ukrainian) extrudes the other languages from the offices, education, traffic and culture and from the electronic media.
To follow with attention the decisions of the last few months it seems that Ukraine wishes to continue the soviet internationalist national politics inherited from Lenin, but with a little difference, that instead of the Russification they put the Ukrainian language in the centre. In the concept of the Ukrainian political elite the ethnical diversity has place, but the linguistic diversity is undesirable.
The other name of the thing
New bilingual dictionaries in Transylvania
In bilingual conditions language planning plays an important role in the effort of improving the speech of dominanat bilingual speakers. If the minority language is not official one, the domains of its usage is restricted, and thus certain in registers of the language are less known or less activated. The specialized bilingual dictionaries are extremely importan in this context both in standardization and in the process of filling lexical gaps of bilingual speakers. The rising of language awereness and language tolerence on sociolinguistical basis is also important in this respect.
The First Casino in Sepsiszentgyörgy
The first associations in Transylvania were established in the '20, '30 decades of the 19. century. The most of the studies estimates the date of establishment of the Casino in Sepsiszentgyörgy in 1855. According to recent studies the first Casino in Sepsiszentgyörgy was created in the year of 1835. The statutory meeting was held in the date of 1 february with the participation of the high-borns of the town and surroundings. At the beginning the association has 100 founders. The statues of the association was almost the same as the other Casinos in Transylvania, it was founded for tree years. The members made a contribution of 8 silver forint, annually. In the statute they stipulated at the first place that everybody can be member of the Casino, regarding less at his status and the financial position. The only condition was the payment of the annual necessary contribution in time. In spite of this fact the Casino members were from the aristocracy, from the civil servants of the county, so we consider it as an aristocrat Casino, there are no ordinary people on the list of members. The establishment of the Casino was rather the sign of those decades, and not a well conceived plan. The life of the first Casino was not to long. In a travel book from 1839 somebody said that there is no life in the Casino, no visitors and no payments. The next episode in the life of the Casino begins in the middle of the '50.
The Hungarian Young People Int he World Risk Society
In our paper we point out that the processes starting at the beginning of the 90s and lasting till these days, has transformed basically the impact of macrolevel social trends on young people. From the 90s globalization has an impact not only on the elite groups of youth, but – owning to the trends resulting young people becoming actors of the market – it is present in the life of the majority of them.
Due to the individualization of youth – becoming presonally and financially independent in earlier age (e.g. independence in entertainment, in having own money and credit) – the rise of the consuption status of young people has become a trend. The most important macro level trend, that transformed the young into actos of the market has strenghetened the effects of world risk society on young people. The present crisis show clearly the integration of uprising regions into world risk society, but altogether shows also that the country belongs to the vulnerable areas of the world. The closing up of the region and youth in this region may continue, but we have to count on the risks, the growing dangers of the process too.
Regional characteristics, local differences play an important role in spreading of trends and effects of the crisis. Disad-vantages are regionally concentrated: regions that are disadvantaged in access to resources are becoming even more endangered.
As regards the possible impacts of the crisis, it is easier to outline processes in the first dimension. We emphasize that in case of young people with disadvantaged background, lower level of schooling and income, the crisis mean more risks. The present differences and inequalities are becoming greaterAt the same time the age-specific features are disapperaing, the different age groups take certain stlyes from each other in music and dressing, as it is also shown by the retro renaissance in different times.
Mű és világa