Renaissance Life and Wines in Hungary
The Renaissance was an important period in the history of Hungarian winemaking, characterized by the rediscovery of the wine-related conclusions of Classical authors and the spreading of ancient wine types (absinthe wines, sweet wine products and the raisin from Ragusa and Dubrovnik, which was also used as a sweetener). Not incidentally, the production of Aszú wines also started in this period. The golden Szerém white wine, so favoured by King Matthias, was probably also a Szamorodni type wine. The mid-16th century brought substantial changes in wine growing and production, such as the regular undertaking of specialist chores, the separation of wines according to their different qualities based on the natural process of shrivelling, the use of relatively small casks with large staves and the selling of Aszú wines, Essence and later Szamorodni varieties. Tokaji became the favourite wine of royal households. Aszú wines and later Essence of Tokaji were especially favoured by the ladies of the ruling classes, since – in the absence of sugar beet – the Early Modern Age lacked the necessary sweeteners. Honey, sugar cane, preserved must or fruits were used to quench a thirst for a sweet sensation.
Invented Traditions Rituals of the Hungarian Wine-Orders
The wine (knights) orders in the vine-growing countries of Europe generally connect their past and history to the monastic orders that were engaged in the production of grapes and wine in the Middle Ages. However, the modern wine orders were formed in the 20th century and spread from France to the vine-growing regions of Europe. The first wine order in Hungary was established in one of the wineries of the Baja State Farm, a town on the Danube in southern Hungary, in 1976, in part encouraged by Belgian and French wine experts. An examination of the festive occasions of the wine orders in Hungary shows that these communities like to draw on the old calendar customs, incorporating elements of them into their invented traditions. The symbols and external features of the community become perceivable and visible to others through the ceremonies and celebrations of the wine order.
Old Vine Land in the Historical Zala County
Among the vine lands of the historical Zala county the Tenke mountain was unknown in the age. Before the phyloxera disease devastating in the last third of the 19th century the vine growing determined the life of one market town and several villages. As the effect of the first vine reconstruction there was a change of cultivation methods and a type of vineyard emigration started which changed the ethnical composition and settlement network.
The Phylloxera's Effects in the Car-pathian Basin
A one and a half centimeters long insect, coming from the American continent almost exterminated the vine in Europe the 1860s. The phylloxera sporead desolation in Hungary too, from 1875 to the turn of the century 40 percent of the vines had to be cut ont. The owners tried to protect their vineyards against the disease with new techniques. They planted the vine in soudy soil and revived the plantations with vine-stocks grafted in wild vine and so with this they could regenerate the vineyards of Hungary before the First World War.
„From Wine Orders to the Educated Alcoholist"
Wine has become a mass-produced article across much of the world, and thus increasingly an industrial product as well. The range of wines offered is almost incomprehensibly vast. The most significant change experienced by the world's wine industry in recent decades has been a general improvement in quality. Although the average quality of the wine filling European glasses reached an all time top, the different styles and types of wine became increasingly uniform. Only in recent years has the trend slowed down to some extent.
The new culture of wine emerged in the 1980s in the context of changing patterns of wine consumption. This can be defined by the large diffusion of journals, magazines, guides, photographs or other types of publications mainly edited or written by wine experts, journalists, historians, professionals or even politicians. This growing literature was accompanied by the explosion of places devoted to wine drinking as a specific social act, of associations, festivals and clubs as wine drinking places. The new type of wine culture offers a great possibility for the researchers to interpret different kinds of social phenomena like wine tourism, wine tastings clubs, wine festivals, wine orders and so on.
Wine Production and Consumption in the First Decades of the 17th Century Kolozsvár
The study presents a picture of the vine gardens located in the area of Kolozsvár and their function in the life of this city. Almost every second citizen had a vineyard, as did the guilds and hospitals. The Council of the Hundred and the Supreme Council oversaw the labour processes and also controlled the wages of the vine workers as well as the course of the harvest. Under special circumstances, as in the fall of 1613 they hired one hundred footsoldiers in order to finish the harvest even in the shadow of the Turkish and Tartar armies. Up to the end of October the harvest was completed, and as the new wine fermented, it was put on sale in the taverns according to the established customs of the city. On special occasions, when for example the Prince or a member of his family with their cortege visited the city, the city also served them imported wine according to their needs.
White Wine on the Rape. About a Moldavian Csángó Villages Viticulture and Vine Growing Techniques
The study analyzes viticulture and wine growing techniques in a Moldavian Csángó village, Cleja. In Cleja traditional viticulture is practiced, which can be included in a traditional East-European frame. This is true not only for Cleja, but for the whole territory of the Moldavian Csángós. The growing of this viticulture is not influenced by producing for the market and modern technologies, but it is attached to tradition and to the lack of funds.
Vine-Growing in Pécs up to 1918
The city of Pécs lies on the southern slopes of Mecsek. The 500 meter high mountain points from East to West and so it is great defence against the cold nor-thern winds. Because of this a bind of mediterrean is typical here wich helps the growing of vine. The roots of vine-growing reach back to the Roman Empire, but as the city became larger and larger the vineyards became smaller. The most famous wine of the city is the white „cirfandli".
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