Breaking with Nationalism
In the introductory chapter of his book called My Transylvania, the author speaks about his relationship with nationalism. He identifies nationalism as one of the main ideas of the late Ceauşescu regime in the 1980s, which was the time for him to break up with such thoughts. He calls nationalism a religion of the modern age, and his aim is to use a rational, constructivist approach when speaking about issues concerning national identities.
Regionalism and the European Union
The author analyses the economical and cultural base of the European process of integration. He identifies this process as a shift from the idea of national states towards the Europe conceived as a federation of states which means also local and regional decisions based on local and regional knowledge. To function as a whole, the European Union needs to be constructed on the concepts of subsidiarity and solidarity.
Ethnical Conflict-Regulating Techniques
Since at the end of the 18th and at the beginning of the 19th century modern nationa-lism was born in East and Southeastern Europe, disputes about important political, economic, social, cultural or territorial issues between two or more ethnically conscious social groups have been major features of the region's history. In the course of this troubled past, majority groups or ruling elites have adopted several conflict-mana-ging or conflict-regulating techniques. The aim of this essay is to survey these historically tested methods and evaluate their relevance. As the basic criterion of a comprehensive typology I have considered the aim and outcome of the intervention. Seen from this perspective it appears that there have been two basic approaches: homogenization or monoethnicism on the one hand and acceptance of ethnic heterogeneity or polyethnicism on the other. Monoethnicism assumes that a given territory should harbor one and only one national community, with a common language, history and literature, with shared national ideas and aspiration, national heroes and holidays. The national body, envisaged as a cultural as well as political unit, is regarded as one and indivi-sible. In contrast with this, polyethnicism accepts the ethnic, cultural or other heterogeneity of the population within a society, although the forms and quality of the coe-xistence can be very different. Within these two basic approaches the following strategies may be identified: genocide, assimilation or ethnocide, population transfer, and border modification as alternatives of monoethicism, and partnership (consociationalism) and subjugation as basic models of polyethnicism.
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