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Korunk 2007 December

Abstracts


Tamás Lönhárt

1907. The World at the Awake of the Century from a Hundred Years’ Perspective: Great Powers’ Policy, generational change in politics, National and Social Movements (1905-1909)

The present study focuses on the dimensions of change, that characterized at the beginning of the 20th century Central Europe, in general, as well as the Hungarian and Romanian elites and societies especially, in which we are most interested. By analyzing the plural levels of the political elites and decision making centers in change, as also the consequences of the Russian and German political and social realities, or the Balkan problems’ awake on the Great Powers agenda, we tried to identify the defining elements that shaped the Central European, and especially the Hungarian and Romanian political elites’ agenda. The moment when the social cleavages and the political tensions led to extraordinary phenomena, like the last European peasant uprising (in the Romanian Kingdom of the year 1907), the neighboring Austro-Hungarian Monarchy had to face its own inner political and social ruptures, as also dealing with the menacing situation nearby its frontiers.

 

László Károly Pokorádi

1907–2007 The First Century of Rotorcrafts

One hundred years ago Louis-Charles Bréguet realized the first vertical take off and landing by Gyroplane No. 1. On that score, the author presents shortly history of “rotorcrafts’ century”. The first part shows a special rotorcraft: the autogiro, which was “forerunner” of helicopters. In next chapters words the growing age of helicopters in the word and the most famous helicopter constructors. Next, the paper presents roles of Hungarian scientists and engineers in the rotorcrafts’ history. The last part shows possibilities of use of helicopters and their history.

 

László Szarka

Modernisation and Magyarisation. The Readings on Education and Minority Policies of the so-called ‘Lex-Apponyi’.

During the half-century after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the leaders of the education policy tried to put the case of general education into a modernisational orbit by means of statutes in HungaryBasically, the elementary folkschools were operated by churches and municipalities. Members of the Hungarian government concerned, including count Albert Apponyi (1906-1909) were able to influence on these institutions by means of regulating the wages of teachers, prescribing the schedules, and aggravating the disciplinary proceedings.  In addition, they also ruled the teaching of the Hungarian language in non-Hungarian speaking schools. Besides the endeavour on modernisation, the lex-Apponyi adopted in 1907, - in certain respects – was against the educational autonomy of Romanian, Serbian and Saxon Churches operating in Hungary, and because of the far-fetched linguistic requirements, it had been become one of this era’s symbols of the Hungarian nationalistic aspirations.

 

 


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