The first bilateral discussion
between Czechoslovakia and Hungary (1921) - Mariánské Lázně (1st
Although Karel's spring restoration attempt and the
connected feverish diplomatic activity of the Czechoslovak minister
of foreign affairs Edvard Beneą had an unfavorable impact on the
Czechoslovak-Hungarian relations, the urgent necessity of final
solution of the accumulated problems of mainly technical or more
precisely practical character contributed to a relatively quick
reestablishment of a healthy communication between both parties in
interest of resumption of negotiations of the commissions created in
Bruck and in interest of implementation of another bilateral meeting
on ministerial level. An evidence of bilateral determination to
continue the negotiations initiated in March was another series of
informal or preparatory dialogues, or more precisely a gradual
initiation in technical commissions since the beginning of June and
soon an agreement at another ministerial meeting held on 23 and 24
of June 1921, already in Czechoslovakia, in the city of Mariánské
Lázně. Those who took part at this second bilateral meeting were
again the head of diplomacy Edvard Beneą from the Czechoslovak side,
and the new minister of foreign affairs earl Miklós Bánfy and the
ex-prime minister earl Pál Teleki from the Hungarian side. In
comparison with the informative political dialogues in Bruck, the
second bilateral negotiations of ministers had a little more
concrete character which was given by the initiation of the sessions
of the commissions and by the necessity of discussing the
controversial questions emerged in them. Holding of the second
Czechoslovak-Hungarian bilateral meeting on ministerial level
confirmed definitely the possibility of normalizing relations
between both countries, even if not directly on the political field,
but at least on the economical one. Thus the Czechoslovak-Hungarian
negotiations initiated in the first half of the year 1921 laid the
foundations for coming to an agreement about a commercial-political
base necessary for both economies, the concrete form of which,
nevertheless, claimed further protracted negotiations, or more
precisely several years more.
Internal settlement process
after the Second World War in south Slovakia
The study examines the so-called internal
settlement that can be considered to be the colonisation's
continuation between the two world wars and to the authorities of
the renewed Czechoslovakia in 1945 parallel with the population
exchange, deportation of the Hungarian population to the Czech part
and the re-slovakisation had important role in the slovakisation of
territories lived by Hungarians.
The author describes in detail the plans on the
resettlement of Hungarian minority worked out by the Slovak National
Council and the two Slovak parties in it. According to that plan one
part of the Hungarian population is to be resettled on a one-side
basis, and the other part is to be resettled to Hungary within the
population exchange and then the Hungarian population remaining in
Slovakia is to be resettled on the entire territory of the country.
The main focus of the study is the introduction of
differing final data on internal settlement by regions.
According to a report dated on 9th October, 1948
within the internal settlement 23,027 Slovak settlers (5,011
families) arrived to the 281 villages of the 25 districts lived by
Hungarians in South Slovakia, in total, who received 44,822 hectare
of land and 1,881 houses from the confiscated properties of
Hungarians and Germans. According to the statements of districts and
villages within the framework of internal settlements the
authorities responsible for settlement transferred people not only
to the regions and villages that were during the population exchange
managed exceptionally (the population exchange concerned exclusively
the territories lived only by Hungarians), but many times also to
territories that were of mixed population and/or to territories that
were already colonised between the two world wars, of which goal was
to strengthen the Slovaks living there.
Since internal settler was considered to be that
person whose original place of living was outside the settlement
area comprising the 25 districts, received land and settled in one
of the villages of the settlement area, the 47,376 local Slovaks
(12,274 families), who received 26,785 hectare of land and 706
houses in the 252 villages of the 25 districts from the confiscated
property of Hungarians (and Germans), were not considered to be
internal settlers, even if during the land assignment they changed
their place of living inside the area.
Revealing the total number of Slovaks settled in
south Slovakia is practically impossible, because the archive
materials contain only data on population that was settled in
organised way, that is within population exchange, re-emigration,
and internal settlement and data on farming population who were
assigned land. There were no statements made on the Slovak
intelligentsia that settled in large numbers, officials, and
traders, of which number could be some ten thousand and that was of
great impact mainly on the changes of ethnic composition.
Human and nationality
The study explains why morality philosophers of
enlightenment - who are considered to be the founders of the human
rights' value system and dealt also with the issue of nationalism -
did not categorise national minority rights to human rights and how
another non-human right oriented approach - utilitarian theory of
nationalism - became prevailing in the liberal country.
The study raises the supposition that John Lock's
exception principle defined in relation with freedom of religion
could influence also national minority judgement. The author
examines the contradiction between nationalism - defined by Immanuel
Kant - and the universal moral order and its consequence that Kant
does not solve the contradiction. Later the author explains the
reasons of J.S.Mill's influence and the internal contradictions of
his approach, and then the insufficiency of Lord Acton's critique's
and Henry Sigdwick's correctional examination.
Economy and credit
organisation - Hungarian banking situation in Slovakia (1918-1923)
The study tries to answer those questions that
arose in relation to the integration of Hungarian nationality banks
from the point of view of the development of the Czechoslovak credit
bank system between 1918 and 1923. The author begins with economic
changes that happened during the power changes in 1918.
Disorganisation in public law and politics in
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy influenced the territory's economic
relations, too. It resulted the economic nationalism of successor
states and autarky of economic policy. From the nationality states
from economic point of view Czechoslovakia was the most developed.
It had a more stable position. It preserved the most important
development results in economy of the Czech-Moravian-Silezian
territories before the First World War.
Czechoslovakia inherited significant economic
capacity (approx. 70 per cent). Only 8.5 per cent of industrial
capacity remained in Slovakia. The impacts of the new state borders
(losing the old markets, arrangements of new markets, cancellation
of state orders) were serious for the eastern parts of the country.
Those regions of Slovakia and Sub-Carpathia that were lived by
Hungarians found themselves in peripheral position from economic
point of view. The Hungarian economists of that time in Slovakia
(László Hantos, Lajos Jócsik, Ödön Tarján) dealt with the economic
under-development, industrial and agricultural crisis of these
territories. They analysed the phenomena through (the hardly
separable) "nationality economy" fiction with grief.
The rest of the book deals with the problems of
unifying credit system structures. The bank system of Czech
territories, that was more professional and had a more developed
division of labour, had a dominant position within the forming
credit organisation. The Upper-Hungarian region had a less
differentiated and lower-level bank institution division of labour.
In the period of the so-called provisional economy (1918-1920) the
Czechoslovak financial governance achieved its independence from
traditional economic centres (Vienna, Budapest) with strict laws and
The study from the wide-range financial
arrangements focuses on examining general economic policy
(independent customs area, money separation, bank of issue), banking
issues (issue of institutional autonomy, transformation of saving
banks to banks, concession system). Later, the study deals with the
processes of nationalisation and nostrification, compares the Czech
and Slovak examples. The operation of those smaller branch offices
that were moved to Czechoslovak territory was ceased. From the most
important, the branch of the Hungarian Credit Bank in Bratislava,
was formed the Slovak General Credit Bank in 1921.
The Czech capital was successful, the Slovak
capital (in spite of its allowances) could not step out from its
regional framework, and lost its Hungarian position. For the
Hungarian nationality banks the nationalisation of the branch
offices and nostrification of their capital eased their situation.
Within the integrated credit organisation the
Hungarian banks in spite of their large number represented a very
slight capital power. Most of them were small-bank types that were
ceased or fused after a time. The professionals of that time thought
that fusion are one of the important conditions of the recovery of
Between 1918 and 1923 in Slovakia and Sub-Carpathia
(with smaller structural modifications) the Hungarian nationality
banks were integrated to the Czechoslovak financial system.
The only child of a family in
Martos (Birth restriction in a village in the lowlands in the 19th -
The methods based on religious registries analyses
worked out by West European researchers in the 1950's enable to
calculate such indicators that enable to analyse demographic
behaviours of the pre-statistical periods. The reason why many
researchers studied registries was mainly to uncover the reasons of
birth restriction. Therefore there are many examinations of
Hungarian religious registries, on the basis of which we know that
even at the end of the 18th century in certain villages of Hungary,
there were birth restrictions, that means that in Europe it happened
for the first time, together with France, in Hungary.
reformed church of the Lowland village of Martos the registry was
introduced in 1731. The registrations from the 18th century are
rather taciturn, but registries from the 19th century are more
precise and sufficient for a so-called family-reconstruction
The author during her work writes mainly about the
work of Rudolf Andorka, demographer, who analysed the reformed
registries in Atany, its calculating methods and aspects.
According to her results in Martos during the 19th
century to the end of the 1880's, the number of births and deaths
was high, changes were in the 1880's, when the number of deaths
During the century is infant mortality high, less
than half of born people lived up to its tenth year of age. From the
epidemic diseases, the cholera in 1831 and 1855 was the strongest.
According to the marriage customs Martos follows the Eastern Europe
example of John Hajnal-type, marriage in early age, the average age
of women marrying for the first time in the 19th century decreased
from 19 to 17 years of age.
The raw and precise indicators of the so-called
marriage fertility indicate that from the first decades of the
century birth restriction was present in Martos, but it was not
general, it is supposed to be in the case of half of the families.
The ethnographical collections evidence the results
of the historical demographic analyses.
Those ethnographers, whose interest on the
village's archaic culture has been from the 30's of the 20th
century, from Edit Fél's researchers, almost continuous, consider
Martos to be a village of "the only one" (the only child of a
family) of its kind. Edit Fél, who is the employee of the
Ethnographical Museum in Budapest, according to her research in
1930, experienced, that in that period birth restriction was a
general fashion and had a compulsory character in the village. Her
observations are also supported by the religious registry records of
that time. According to the collections of Edit Fél, the method of
birth restriction - abortion - used in 1930, began in the first
decades of the 19th century in the village.
The work deals also with finding the relationships
and reasons that influenced the birth restriction practising in
Martos, that became compulsory in the 30's of the 20th century.
The new edition of the
Hungarian explanatory concise dictionary and the vocabulary of
Slovak variants of the Hungarian language
The new edition of the Hungarian explanatory
concise dictionary that is to appear in a short time will in
contrary with the editions published previously contain Slovak,
Transylvanian, and Sub-Carpathian Hungarian words. In this work the
author - who was asked by the Language Institute of the Hungarian
Academy of Sciences, compiled a register of Hungarian words used in
Slovakia - deals with the principles used during the process of
selecting Hungarian words used in Slovakia and even introduces a few
word samples from this word-material. On the basis of the word
samples the author presents the main word types. Almost all the
Hungarian words used in Slovakia that the dictionary comprises are
loanwords of Slovak origin, although there are some "own products",
too. The loanwords comprise both proper loanwords and loanshifts, as
well. The elements of the standard variety of Hungarian in Slovakia
are loanshifts almost without exception; its two main types are the
calques and the semantic loans. The dictionary will contain a large
number of non-standard elements, mainly such elements that are also
used by people who live in the area with the majority of Hungarians
and educated speakers in informal speaking situations.
We can find here proper loanwords and loanforms.
Since now practically in the dictionary it is impossible to refer to
the words - used by speakers who are less educated, or speakers who
live on a territory with the majority of Slovak speakers - without
stigmatization, the author renounced to include such loanwords in
the dictionary. The author in the new edition of the dictionary
comes out in support of getting rid of scientific, from the human
rights' point of view problematic prescriptive and linguicist view.
Contact Phenomena in
Hungarian Language Usage in Veµký Cetín/Nagycétény
The natural consequence of social and political
changes of the 20th century was that the Hungarian nationality
people that found themselves in minority position got into regular
contact with the official language of the given country. The
so-called contact changes were created from the impacts of the
majority language on minority language. The Hungarian nationality
people in Slovakia speak the contact varieties of the language that
is characterised by certain Slovak language elements, slovakism.
More specifically, literature mentions contact phenomena of Slovak
origin present in the Slovak variations of the Hungarian language,
if there are no similarities in the one-language varieties of the
Hungarian language with the elements, structures of the Slovak
language. Observations and research showed that the Hungarian
nationality people in Slovakia use the Slovak Hungarian form even in
such cases, when they know the variation used in Hungary.
Veµký Cetín community is situated on the south-east
of the town of Nitra, on the Slovak-Hungarian language border. At
the last population census 83.3 percent of the population confessed
to Hungarian nationality. In Veµký Cetín the Hungarian language is
predominant, although in the neighbouring villages mainly Slovak is
spoken. In Nitra the official matters can be managed only in Slovak
language. The members of the community during the everyday
interaction use both languages in a smaller or larger extent. The
author provided the survey on the basis of objective linguistic data
in form of questionnaires. The first part of the questionnaire
measured the sociological indicators (the answer giver's gender,
family background, address, education, language of attended
educational institutions), the second part served for collecting
objective linguistic data. The answer givers (60 persons) were
chosen according to layered sampling.
The large-scale presence of the 20 examined
linguistic phenomena indicates that the contact phenomena play in
the life of data givers in Veµký Cetín an important role. Although,
the data in some cases re-valued the hypothesis that was defined at
the beginning of the survey. The connectivity of certain data giving
generations and proportion of using slovakism did not always prove
the expected supposition. The examined contact phenomena showed up
in most cases in the language usage of old data-givers after the
language usage of the young generation. Varieties of not expected
sound substitution varieties were present mainly in the answers of
the older generation.
Forms of greeting and addressing
at the Eötvös Street Elementary School in Komárno.
The author in his study examines the system of
forms of greeting and addressing at the Eötvös Street Elementary
School in Komárno. The collection was by form of questionnaires. One
hundred pupils of the 5th to 8th classes took part in the survey.
The author processed the achieved data even statistically. According
to the survey the most often used form of greeting is "szia" /1/,
then "helo" /2/, "jó napot" /3/, "csókolom" /4/, "cső" /5/,
"szevasz" /6/, "dicsértessék" /7/, and "csá" /8/. Saying "maga" /9/
is less used. From addressing, pupils most frequently like to use
and pet- or nicknames, then given names and family names. The most
frequently used suffixes of nicknames are -i, -ika, -ka. The pupils'
parents use the most variations. The fatic elements referring to
verbal communication form a very rich system.
- Translator's remark: meaning "hi"
- Translator's remark: meaning "hello"
- Translator's remark: meaning "good day"
- Translator's remark: no equivalent in English, literal
translation being"I kiss you", polite greeting to older people
- Translator's remark: no equivalent in English, perhaps
originating from the Italian "ciao", used between friends
- Translator's remark: variant of "hi"
- Translator's remark: meaning "praised be (Our Lord)"
- Translator's remark: variant of "ciao"
- Translator's remark: "maga" used in more polite speaking,
showing respect mainly to older people
Examination of Terminological
Vocabulary of Cartwright and Smithery in Horné
Saliby(Interdependence of the Two Folk Crafts in Everyday Life and
its Reflection in the Examination of Synonyms)
The main objective of this study is on the one hand
to demonstrate the professional interdependence of the two very old
crafts (cart-maker and smith) that have an old history in Horné
Saliby, and on the other hand to show on the basis of the language
material - in the examination of synonyms of the terminological
vocabulary - the reflection of this interdependence. The two types
of craftsmanship have in Horné Saliby a very old and common history,
since the cart-maker and smith formed a joint craft, because what
the cart-maker prepared from wood, the smith had to forge it to be
durable. The cart could be then finished in close co-operation with
The most striking reflection of the interdependence
of the two crafts can be observed by examining the synonyms of the
terminological vocabulary. In the terminological vocabulary of the
two crafts the author found 152 synonyms and this number would have
been much higher if the author had collected data in the territory
of the whole Mátyusföld.
Since the cart-makers and smiths often worked in
one workshop, closely co-operating, they worked on the preparation
of the cart, it is not surprising that they both learned the names
of the several parts of the cart. This is the reason why 36 percent
of synonyms were used by both craftsmen.
Person committed to long-term history
Interview of Ilona L. Juhász with László Kósa
László Kósa, academician, leader of the Department
of Cultural History at the Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest,
chairman of the Hungarian Ethnographical Society, is one of the
Hungarian ethnographers who almost from the beginning of his
scientific activities pays attention to the Hungarians who live
outside the borders of Hungary. He regularly visited, toured most
part of the Slovak territories lived by Hungarians and he was that
person who in 1968 worked out the long-term programme of the
ethnographical research of Hungarians living in Slovakia. Apart from
his scientific activities, there are numbers of works from
folk-poetry, scientific historical and social-ethnographical works
to agricultural ethnography that relate with his name.
The publication of the Hungarian areas' folk-poetry
anthology in Slovakia in 1979 was one of the important events of
Hungarian ethnography in Slovakia. On the occasion of his sixtieth
birthday, he gave more interviews of which we can get an overall
picture on László Kósa's rare diligence, and large-scale
professional activities. During the interview of Ilona L. Juhász
with László Kósa, the Hungarian aspects of his activities were the